Audit and accounting + digital assets:

Navigating complexity in a rapidly changing environment

Accounting for and auditing digital assets can be complex. Practices and regulatory guidance surrounding asset classification, measurement requirements, fair value considerations, disclosures, and other issues continue to evolve. Meanwhile, the need for building trust continues to grow, as financial institutions, corporations and consumers opt in to this new, but rapidly expanding industry.

Strategic considerations

We believe that digital assets are here to stay, and it is important to have a financial reporting plan in place.

Questions business leaders are asking

How do I safeguard my digital assets?

The design and implementation of internal controls to safeguard your digital assets is critical. We can help you with the design of your internal control environment, including evaluation of relevant internal controls at a third party service provider (e.g., custodian).


How is cryptocurrency classified in accounting?

Many cryptocurrencies are classified as “intangible assets” under US GAAP standards (for non-funds). We can help you with your assessment of the classification and assist with identifying the appropriate measurement requirements (e.g., fair-value requirements) and associated accounting policies.

What is the process for disclosures in cryptocurrencies?

The rights and preferences associated with certain digital assets can vary, which may require different accounting, such as treatment as a financial asset. We help you identify the appropriate presentation for cryptocurrencies held and related disclosures, including fair-value disclosures.

What are some of the considerations associated with financial reporting in cryptocurrencies?

Initial recognition, subsequent recognition, and disclosures are important asset considerations. Other financial reporting considerations include impairment and fair value, as well as the systems and processes in place to monitor cost-basis tracking, gains, and losses for digital assets. We can help you analyze existing policies and can advise you and help you prepare your accounting policies associated with investments in cryptocurrencies.

Digital asset audit and accounting services

  • Advising on and drafting accounting policies and financial statement disclosures
  • Asset classification evaluations
  • Assurance program design
  • Audit and SEC regulatory support
  • Audit readiness
  • Cost-basis tracking
  • Financial statement audit
  • Impairment evaluations
  • Internal audit co-sourcing / outsourcing
  • Internal controls over financial reporting / SOX co-sourcing / outsourcing
  • IPO readiness
  • Operational accounting advisory and transformation
  • Proof of reserves assessment and reporting
  • Recognition, measurement and presentation of digital assets from both issuer and holder perspectives
  • Risk management and enterprise governance
  • SOC readiness
  • SOC-2 Type 1 reporting
  • Technical accounting advice


PwC brings knowledge and experience from the digital assets and crypto ecosystem, coupled with a longstanding record of providing assurance and audit services to businesses of all sizes and stages of growth. We bring a range of capabilities from performing financial statement audits and ICFR audits, robust public offering preparedness, complex accounting and structuring, mergers, acquisitions and divestiture support. Our data-driven, transparent, and digitally enabled approach can help you set the course and accelerate your long-term growth strategy. Let’s plan your next move.

Contact us

Anna Kajirian

Partner, PwC US

John Oliver

Partner, Governance Insights Center & National FinTech Trust Services Co-Leader, PwC US

Carey Carpenter

Digital Assurance & Transparency Trust Solutions Partner, PwC US

Kevin Jackson

Partner, PwC Deals, PwC US

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