Segment definitions

Book publishing

This segment comprises revenue generated from the sale of consumer books (i.e. bought by consumers for personal use), educational books (i.e. bought by consumers or institutions for educational use) and professional books (i.e. targeted at professional users, such as legal publishing), including both print and electronic editions. Revenues are assigned to the format of the book sold, rather than the means of distribution, i.e. print editions bought from online retailers contribute to print revenues. Audio books are included within the print category. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Educational books are those bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use. In the US only, this includes a split between Elhi (books targeted at elementary and high school students) and college textbooks (including postgraduate textbooks). Other markets do not have this split. We split the educational market between print/audio and electronic formats. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Professional books are those targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) across both print (including audio) and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Sub-component definitions

Total books revenue ($ mn)
The total revenue generated from the sale of consumer (i.e. books bought by consumers for personal use), educational (i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use) and professional books (i.e. books targeted at professional users, such as legal publishing), including both print and electronic editions. Revenues are assigned to the format of the book sold, rather than the means of distribution, i.e. print editions bought from online retailers contribute to print revenues. Audio books are included within the print category. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total consumer books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of consumer books, i.e. books bought by consumers for personal use. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Consumer books electronic revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of electronic consumer books, i.e. books bought by consumers for personal use. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Consumer books print/audio revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of print and audio consumer books, i.e. books bought by consumers for personal use. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total educational books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of educational books, i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use. This includes a split between Elhi (elementary and high school) and college textbooks (including postgraduate textbooks) in the US only. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total educational books electronic revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of electronic educational books, i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Educational books electronic revenue (non-US) ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of electronic educational books, i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use, outside the US, which is accounted separately. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Elhi electronic revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, revenue from the sale of electronic Elhi books, i.e. books targeted at elementary and high school students. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

College electronic revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, revenue from the sale of electronic college books, i.e. books targeted at college students (including postgraduate textbooks). Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total educational books print/audio revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of print and audio educational books, i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use. This includes a split between Elhi (elementary and high school) and college text books (including postgraduate textbooks) in the US only. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Educational books print/audio revenue (non-US) ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of print and audio educational books, i.e. books bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use, outside the US, which is accounted separately. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Elhi print/audio revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, revenue from the sale of print and audio Elhi books, i.e. books targeted at elementary and high school students. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

College print/audio revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, revenue from the sale of print and audio college books, i.e. books targeted at college students (including postgraduate textbooks). Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total Elhi revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, total revenue from the sale of Elhi books, i.e. books targeted at elementary and high school students. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total college revenue (US only) ($ mn)
In the US only, total revenue from the sale of college books, i.e. books targeted at college students (including postgraduate textbooks). Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) across both print and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Print/audio professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of print and audio books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing). This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Electronic professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of electronic books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing). This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

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Business-to-business

This segment covers business-to-business media, comprising business information, directory advertising, trade magazines, professional books and trade shows.

Business information includes spending on business-focussed data and intelligence and is split into three separate categories: financial, marketing and industry. Financial includes securities, and economic credit data; marketing includes sales and survey research, mailing lists and demographic databases; and industry includes data and content covering market share information and competitor intelligence. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is considered consumer spending.

Directory advertising covers the advertising spend on both print and digital editions of directories such as Yellow Pages. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.

Trade magazines comprises both advertising and circulation revenue from magazines aimed at a professional audience. This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or discrete digital editions of magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers on printed trade magazines including single copies direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions, as well as spending on downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Professional books are those targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) and this segment considers revenue generated by sales across both print (including audio) and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade shows considers revenue from spending by businesses on exhibition at trade shows. It does not include sponsorship of events. This revenue is non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.

Sub-component definitions

Total business-to-business revenue ($ mn)
Total revenue from business-to-business media, comprising business information, directory advertising, trade magazines, professional books and trade shows. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total business information revenue ($ mn)
Business information includes spending on business-focussed data and intelligence and is split into three separate categories; financial, marketing and industry. Financial includes securities, and economic credit data; marketing includes sales and survey research, mailing lists and demographic databases; and industry includes data and content covering market share information and competitor intelligence. This revenue is both digital (i.e. information delivered via an Internet connection) and non-digital (i.e. information delivered in physical formats), and is considered consumer spending.

Business information (financial) revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of financial business information, including securities, and economic credit data. This revenue is both digital (i.e. information delivered via an Internet connection) and non-digital (i.e. information delivered in physical formats), and is considered consumer spending.

Business information (marketing) revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of marketing business information, including sales and survey research, mailing lists and demographic databases. This revenue is both digital (i.e. information delivered via an Internet connection) and non-digital (i.e. information delivered in physical formats), and is considered consumer spending.

Business information (industry) revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of industry business information, including data and content covering market share information and competitor intelligence. This revenue is both digital (i.e. information delivered via an Internet connection) and non-digital (i.e. information delivered in physical formats), and is considered consumer spending.

Total directory advertising revenue ($ mn)
Directory advertising covers the advertising spend on both print and digital editions of directories such as Yellow Pages. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.

Print directory advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising spend on print editions of directories such as Yellow Pages. This revenue is non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.

Digital directory advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising spend on digital editions of directories such as Yellow Pages. This revenue is digital and is considered advertising spending.

Total trade magazine revenue ($ mn)
This comprises revenue from trade magazines (i.e. magazines aimed at a professional audience), from both advertising and circulation. This sub-component considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or discrete digital editions of magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions in print and via downloads of individual copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total trade magazine circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of trade magazines (i.e. aimed at a professional audience), including single copies and subscriptions, and both physical and digital editions. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade magazine print circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of printed trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience), including single copies direct from retail outlets and subscriptions. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade magazine digital circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of digital trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience), via downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total trade magazine advertising revenue ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from both print and digital trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and digital online magazines – either through a magazine website, or on digital editions of magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Trade magazine print advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from print advertising in trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This revenue is non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Trade magazine digital advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising in digital editions of trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This segment considers advertising spend on digital online magazines – either through a magazine website, or on digital editions of magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is digital, and is from advertising spending.

Total professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) across both print and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Print/audio professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of print and audio books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing). This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Electronic professional books revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of electronic books targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing). This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade shows revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from spending by businesses on exhibition at trade shows. It does not include sponsorship of events. This revenue is non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.

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Cinema

This segment comprises cinema revenue (including box office and advertising). This revenue is non-digital, and includes both consumer and advertising spending.

Cinema revenue comprises consumer spend at the box office for theatrical motion pictures and advertising spend at the cinema including on-screen adverts prior to the movie. It does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions. This revenue is non-digital, and from both consumer and advertising spending.

Sub-component definitions

Total cinema revenue ($ mn)
Cinema revenue comprises consumer spend at the box office for theatrical motion pictures and advertising spend at the cinema including on-screen adverts prior to the movie. It does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions. This revenue is non-digital, and from both consumer and advertising spending.

Box office revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spend at the box office for theatrical motion pictures, calculated by multiplying average admission price by the number of admissions in the year referenced. This revenue is non-digital, and from consumer spending.

Average admission price ($)
The average price of a cinema ticket in the year referenced.

Admissions (mn)
The number of tickets sold in the year referenced.

Cinema advertising revenue ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from the cinema, i.e. on-screen adverts prior to the movie. It does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions. This revenue is non-digital, and from advertising spending.

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Internet access

This segment considers spend on accessing the Internet and is split into two categories: mobile Internet and fixed broadband.

Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies. Satellite services which rely on a fixed device mounted to a house are used in similar ways to, and so serve the same market need as, xDSL, FTTx, cable modem and other forms of fixed-line broadband, and are thus considered a form of fixed broadband. Fixed broadband households are further broken down into high-, medium- and low-speed connections.

Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards. Mobile Internet connections are further broken down into high-, medium- and low-speed connections.

Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. A "smartphone connection" relates to an active SIM card with or without a data plan used through a smartphone device rather than a unique subscriber using a smartphone service. Smartphone penetration reflects the percentage of all mobile phone connections in a territory that are smartphones. By extension the remaining mobile phone connections are non-smartphones.

Tablets are defined as mobile computing devices with a screen size of between five and 12 inches (17.8cm and 30.5cm) and using touchscreen as their primary input method. The tablet forecast includes all active devices in this category and penetration in this instance reflects the number of tablets as a percentage of the population.

App downloads refers to any applications that are downloaded from an app store and installed on connected devices such as smartphones, tablets and smart TVs. An app store is a distributor of apps for one or more mobile or TV operating system (OS) ecosystem (e.g. Apple App Store, Google Play and Getjar). The data is based on ecosystem totals for all devices across all bearers – including cellular, Wi-Fi, and fixed. Both paid and free apps are counted, but only unique downloads are included, not app updates or re-downloads.

Sub-component definitions

Total Internet access revenue ($ mn)
Total subscription revenue from both fixed broadband and mobile Internet. Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies. Satellite services which rely on a fixed device mounted to a house are used in similar ways to, and so serve the same market need as, xDSL, FTTx, cable modem and other forms of fixed-line broadband, and are thus considered a form of fixed broadband. Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards. This revenue is digital, and from consumer spending.

Fixed broadband access revenue ($ mn)
Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies. This revenue is digital, and from consumer spending.

Mobile Internet access revenue ($ mn)
Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards. This revenue is digital, and from consumer spending.

Fixed broadband households (mn)
The number of households subscribing to fixed broadband services. Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies.

High-speed fixed broadband households (mn)
The number of households with fixed fast broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies that deliver speed of 30Mbps and above. These technologies include fibre, VDSL and DOCSIS 3.0.

Medium-speed fixed broadband households (mn)
The number of households with fixed standard broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies with lower speed than 30Mbps, but faster than 4Mbps. These technologies include DOCSIS 1&2, ADSL2+ and ADSL2.

Low-speed fixed broadband households (mn)
The number of households with fixed low-speed broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies with lower speed than 4Mbps. These technologies include ADSL.

Fixed broadband penetration (%)
The percentage of households subscribing to fixed broadband services. Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies.

High-speed fixed broadband penetration (%)
The percentage of households with fixed fast broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies that deliver speed of 30Mbps and above. These technologies include fibre, VDSL and DOCSIS 3.0.

Medium-speed fixed broadband penetration (%)
The percentage of households with fixed standard broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies with lower speed than 30Mbps, but faster than 4Mbps. These technologies include DOCSIS 1&2, ADSL2+ and ADSL2.

Low-speed fixed broadband penetration (%)
The percentage of households with fixed low-speed broadband connections, consisting of fixed connections residing on technologies with lower speed than 4Mbps. These technologies include ADSL.

Mobile Internet subscribers (mn)
The number of subscribers to mobile Internet services. Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards.

Mobile Internet penetration (%)
The percentage of the population subscribing to mobile Internet services. Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards. Note that this is distinct from high-, medium- and low-speed mobile Internet penetration, which is a percentage of mobile Internet connections.

Mobile Internet connections (mn)
Mobile Internet connections are the number of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: WCDMA, HSPA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, CDMA2000 EV-DO, mobile WiMAX, GPRS and EDGE. A connection is defined as the highest available technology evolution for a particular device. For example, a device may be capable of making both a WCDMA and HSPA connection, but would only be considered as an HSPA connection. This distinction prevents double counting. Mobile Internet connections are split between high-speed, medium-speed and low-speed.

High-speed mobile Internet connections (mn)
The number of high-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: LTE and LTE Advanced.

Medium-speed mobile Internet connections (mn)
The number of medium-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: WCDMA, HSPA, TD-SCDMA, CDMA2000 EV-DO, and mobile WiMAX.

Low-speed mobile Internet connections (mn)
The number of low-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: GPRS and EDGE.

High-speed mobile Internet penetration (%)
The percentage of high-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: LTE and LTE Advanced. Note that this is distinct from mobile Internet penetration, which is a percentage of the population subscribing to mobile Internet services.

Medium-speed mobile Internet penetration (%)
The percentage of medium-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: WCDMA, HSPA, TD-SCDMA, CDMA2000 EV-DO, and mobile WiMAX. Note that this is distinct from mobile Internet penetration, which is a percentage of the population subscribing to mobile Internet services.

Low-speed mobile Internet penetration (%)
The percentage of low-speed mobile Internet connections, consisting of mobile connections residing on the following technologies: GPRS and EDGE. Note that this is distinct from mobile Internet penetration, which is a percentage of the population subscribing to mobile Internet services.

Total mobile phone ownership (mn)
The total number of active mobile phone connections, comprising both smartphones and non-smartphones. Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. Non-smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that do not offer advanced computing capabilities or the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. We track mobile phone connections, relating to an active SIM card, rather than unique subscribers.

Smartphone ownership (mn)
Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. In this case, we track smartphone connections, relating to an active SIM card with or without a data plan used through a smartphone device, rather than a unique subscriber using a smartphone service.

Non-smartphone ownership (mn)
The number of active non-smartphone connections. Non-smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that do not offer advanced computing capabilities or the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. In this case, we track non-smartphone connections, relating to an active SIM card, rather than a unique subscriber using a non-smartphone service.

Smartphone penetration (%)
Smartphone penetration reflects the percentage of all mobile phone connections in a territory that are smartphones. Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system.

Non-smartphone penetration (%)
Non-smartphone penetration reflects the percentage of all mobile phone connections in a territory that are not smartphones. Non-smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that do not offer advanced computing capabilities or the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system.

Tablet ownership (mn)
Tablets are defined as mobile computing devices with a screen size of between seven and 12 inches (17.8cm and 30.5cm) and using touchscreen as their primary input method. Tablet ownership captures the number of active tablet devices, i.e. those connected to the Internet.

Tablet penetration (%)
Tablets are defined as mobile computing devices with a screen size of between seven and 12 inches (17.8cm and 30.5cm) and using touchscreen as their primary input method. Tablet penetration reflects that percentage of households that have access to an active tablet device, i.e. one connected to the Internet.

Apps (no. of downloads)
App downloads refers to any applications that are downloaded from an app store and installed on connected devices such as smartphones, tablets and smart TVs. An app store is a distributor of apps for one or more mobile or TV operating system (OS) ecosystems (e.g. Apple App Store, Google Play and Getjar). The data is based on ecosystem totals for all devices across all bearers – including cellular, Wi-Fi, and fixed. Both paid and free apps are counted, but only unique downloads are included, not app updates or re-downloads.

NOT PART OF GEMO SEGMENTS

Device types: definitions

Smartphone
Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. In this case, we track smartphone connections, relating to an active SIM card with or without a data plan used through a smartphone device, rather than a unique subscriber using a smartphone service.

Non-smartphone
Non-smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that do not offer advanced computing capabilities or the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. In this case, we track non-smartphone connections, relating to an active SIM card, rather than a unique subscriber using a non-smartphone service.

Tablet
Tablets are defined as mobile computing devices with a screen size of between seven and 12 inches (17.8cm and 30.5cm) and using touchscreen as their primary input method.

Other portable
Other portable represents other devices to smartphones and tablets, including data cards, dongles, personal hotspots, routers and laptops.

Content categories: definitions

Total data consumed (MB mn)
The sum of IP traffic that crosses the Internet backbone. This represents all wireless data traffic, including cellular data traffic over 2G, 3G and 4G networks, plus Wi-Fi.

Video (MB mn)
This includes all OTT/unmanaged video streaming and video download traffic. Video streaming is video content that is streamed or progressively downloaded over the Internet. It requires continuous network connectivity, although some content may be cached locally for short periods to allow for immediate replay. Examples include Netflix, Hulu and Youtube. Video downloads refers to downloads of both short- and long-form videos to a connected device. It does not include video files downloaded from peer-to-peer networks or cloud storage sites. Once downloaded on the device, the user can play the video without having to connect to the network. Examples include iTunes and Googleplay. Please note that this excludes “managed” video, thus we include TV and movie content where it is viewed on a service such as Netflix or Hulu, but not when it is delivered via a managed video service, for example by a broadcaster.

Games (MB mn)
This refers to gaming on a device which requires continuous network connectivity for the duration of play. Examples of games requiring continuous network connectivity include Clash of Clans and World of Warcraft.

Music (MB mn)
This includes both music streaming services and music downloads. Music streaming services allow the user to listen to music on demand and in real time without having to download a complete file first. Some data may be cached for replay at a later date, but consecutive plays require retransmission over the Internet. Examples include Spotify, Deezer and Youtube. Music downloads refers to the download of full-track songs to a device using an Internet connection. Once downloaded on the device, the user can play and listen to the music without having to connect to the network. Examples include iTunes and Googleplay.

Web browsing (MB mn)
This refers to accessing websites, such as blogs and news sites, using the browser of a device. Examples include HTTP and WAP browsing.

Social networking (MB mn)
Social networking includes services ranging from simple chat rooms to multimedia-rich environments and user-generated sharing communities which persist after the user logs off. Examples include Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.

Communications (MB mn)
This refers to applications, services and protocols that allow email, chat, voice and video communications. Examples include WhatsApp, Skype, Viber and iMessage.

Other digital content consumed (MB mn)
This includes a variety of other services such as application downloads, file sharing, online storage, MMS and software updates. Examples include Apple and Android App Store downloads, BitTorrent and Dropbox.

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Internet advertising

This segment comprises spending by advertisers either through a wired Internet connection or via mobile devices. The types of advertising (wired or mobile) are classified primarily by format rather than transport mechanism or device. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Total Internet advertising comprises online television, newspaper, consumer magazine, trade magazine, directory advertising and online radio (for North America only), which are also all included in their respective segments. The wired sub-segments consider paid search, display and classified formats. Display is broken out further between video and other display.

“Social” advertising occurs across a range of wired and wireless sub-segments but is not broken out separately. Figures for total advertising eliminate any double counting.

Search Internet advertising involves placing ads on web pages that show results of search engine queries (e.g. Google AdWords).

Display Internet advertising comprises revenues from traditional ads placed on web pages in many forms, including banner ads and branded content/native advertising. Other Internet advertising formats (affiliates, rich media, email) are also included under this category. Ads sold through programmatic advertising are included here, but we do not break out revenue by method of selling.

Broken out from display Internet advertising revenue is video Internet advertising revenue, which comprises revenue from in-stream video advertising (pre-rolls, mid-rolls, post-rolls) and out-of-stream video advertising. It includes revenue from both traditional broadcasters and Internet-based websites, including YouTube.

Classified Internet advertising is advertising posted online in a categorical listing of products or services. A fee is paid by an advertiser to display an ad or listing around a specific vertical such as automotive, recruiting or real estate.

Mobile Internet advertising comprises all advertising delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. It is split out into the sub-segments of mobile paid search Internet advertising revenue and mobile display Internet advertising revenue. Mobile display Internet advertising revenue is broken down further into mobile video Internet advertising revenue and mobile other display Internet advertising revenue. This revenue is digital.

Sub-component definitions

Total Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises spending by advertisers on platforms accessed either through a wired Internet connection or via mobile devices. The types of advertising (wired or mobile) are classified primarily by format rather than transport mechanism or device. The total Internet advertising segment comprises online television, newspaper, consumer magazine, trade magazine, directory advertising and online radio (for North America only) which are also all included in their respective segments. “Social” advertising occurs across a range of wired and wireless sub-segments but is not broken out separately. Figures for total advertising eliminate any double counting. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Mobile Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Mobile Internet advertising comprises all advertising delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Mobile paid search Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Mobile paid search Internet advertising involves placing ads that show results of search engine queries (e.g. Google AdWords) and that are delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Mobile display Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Mobile display Internet advertising comprises revenues from traditional ads in many forms, including banner ads and branded content/native advertising, and delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. Other Internet advertising formats (affiliates, rich media, email) are also included under this category. Ads sold through programmatic advertising are included here, but we do not break out revenue by method of selling. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Mobile video Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Mobile video Internet advertising comprises revenue from in-stream video advertising (pre-rolls, mid-rolls, post-rolls) and out-of-stream video advertising delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. It includes revenue from both traditional broadcasters and Internet-based websites, including YouTube. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Mobile other display Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Mobile other display Internet advertising revenue comprises all non-video forms of display Internet advertising revenue delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Total wired Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises spending by advertisers on platforms accessed through a wired connection. The wired Internet advertising segment considers online television, newspaper, consumer magazine, trade magazine and online radio (for North America only) advertising, which are also all included in their respective segments. Figures for total advertising eliminate any double counting. The wired Internet advertising sub-segments consider paid search, display, classified and video formats. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Display Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Display Internet advertising comprises revenues from traditional ads placed on webpages in many forms, including banner ads and branded content/native advertising. Other Internet advertising formats (affiliates, rich media, email) are also included under this category. Ads sold through programmatic advertising are included here, but we do not break out revenue by method of selling. This is broken further out between video Internet advertising revenue and other display Internet advertising revenue. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Video Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Video Internet advertising comprises revenue from in-stream video advertising (pre-rolls, mid-rolls, post-rolls) and out-of-stream video advertising. It includes revenue from both traditional broadcasters and Internet-based websites, including YouTube. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Other display Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Other display Internet advertising revenue comprises all non-video forms of display Internet advertising revenue. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Paid search Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Search Internet advertising involves placing ads on webpages that show results of search engine queries (e.g. Google AdWords). This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

Classified Internet advertising revenue ($ mn)
Classified Internet advertising is advertising posted online in a categorised listing of products or services. A fee is paid by an advertiser to display an ad or listing around a specific vertical such as automotive, recruiting or real estate. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.

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Magazine publishing

This segment comprises revenue from both consumer-focussed and trade magazines (i.e. magazines aimed at a professional audience), from both circulation and advertising. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Circulation revenue for both consumer and trade magazines comprises spending by readers on either single sales from retail outlets or via subscriptions in print, and via downloads of individual copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet.

This segment considers advertising spend for both consumer and trade magazines in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within the print advertising section. Licensing of merchandise is not included in the segment.

Sub-component definitions

Total magazine revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises revenue from both consumer-focussed and trade magazines (i.e. magazines aimed at a professional audience), from both circulation and advertising. This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within this print advertising section. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions in print and via downloads of individual copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Licensing of merchandise is not included in the segment. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total consumer magazine revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from consumer-focussed magazines, from both advertising and circulation. This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within this advertising section. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers on physical print magazines direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions in print and via downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total consumer magazine circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of consumer-focussed magazines, from spending by readers on physical print magazines direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions, and via downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Print consumer magazine circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of physical consumer-focussed magazines, including single sales direct from retail outlets and subscriptions. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Digital consumer magazine circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of digital editions of consumer magazines, via downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device, such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total consumer magazine advertising revenue ($ mn)
This sub-component considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within this advertising section. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Print consumer magazine advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from print advertising in consumer-focussed magazines. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within this section. This revenue is non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Digital consumer magazine advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising in digital editions of consumer magazines, i.e. versions accessible only on a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within this section. This revenue is digital, and is from advertising spending.

Total trade magazine revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises revenue from trade magazines (i.e. magazines aimed at a professional audience), from both advertising and circulation. This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers on printed trade magazines including single copies direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions, as well as spending on downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total trade magazine circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of trade magazines (i.e. aimed at a professional audience), including single copies and subscriptions, and both physical and digital editions. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade magazine print circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of physical trade magazines (i.e. aimed at a professional audience), including single copies direct from retail outlets and subscriptions. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Trade magazine digital circulation revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of digital trade magazines (i.e. aimed at a professional audience), via downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total trade magazine advertising revenue ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from both print and digital trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Trade magazine print advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from print advertising in trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This revenue is non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Trade magazine digital advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising in digital editions of trade magazines (i.e. those aimed at a professional audience). This sub-component considers advertising spend through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is digital, and is from advertising spending.

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Music

This segment comprises consumer spend on music, including both physical and digital recorded music and live music played at concerts, as well as revenue from sponsorship of live music, but does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and revenue from both consumer and advertising spending.

The recorded music component comprises physical and digital. All consumer spend is measured at retail level which can be substantially higher than the wholesale or trade value revenues sometimes reported. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and is revenue from consumer spending.

Physical recorded music covers any retail or online purchase of official physical albums (i.e. CDs), single sound recordings or music videos. Digital recorded music considers the sale of any licensed music distributed digitally to connected devices (including PCs, tablets, smartphones and dedicated music players), and is split between streaming and downloads.

Streaming comprises revenue from subscription and advertiser-supported streaming services (such as Spotify). Note that service providers do not break this revenue out into consumer and advertising components.

Downloads includes revenues from any licensed recorded music downloaded via app stores or licensed services (such as iTunes).

Mobile music here refers to the purchase of ringtone and ring-back tones only. Revenues from music services that are delivered wirelessly to connected devices (such as Spotify) are included under digital.

This segment does not include performance rights, and so would exclude e.g. SoundExchange distributions and Synchronisation revenues.

For live music, consumer spend on tickets is included along with sponsorship revenues. This segment is non-digital and represents revenue from consumer and advertising spending.

The total number of music units sold at retail level, both physical and digital, includes both single tracks (as either physical or digital singles) and albums (either digital or physical).

The number of individual music tracks sold digitally includes digital singles, albums and paid-for music videos.

The number of physical music units sold includes albums on CD, single sound recordings and paid-for music videos.

Sub-component definitions

Total music revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises consumer spend on music, including both physical and digital recorded music and live music played at concerts, as well as revenue from sponsorship of live music, but does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and revenue from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total recorded music revenue ($ mn)
The recorded music component comprises physical and digital. All consumer spend is measured at retail level which can be substantially higher than the wholesale or trade value revenues sometimes reported. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and is revenue from consumer spending.

Physical recorded music revenue ($ mn)
Physical recorded music covers any retail or online purchase of official physical albums (i.e. CDs), single sound recordings or music videos. This segment is non-digital and covers revenue from consumer spending.

Total digital recorded music revenue ($ mn)
Digital recorded music considers the sale of any licensed music distributed digitally to connected devices (including PCs, tablets, smartphones and dedicated music players), and is split between downloads and streaming. This segment is digital and represents revenue from consumer spending (as well as an element of digital streaming revenue from advertiser spending).

Digital music streaming revenue ($ mn)
Streaming comprises revenue from subscription and advertiser-supported streaming services. This sub-component is digital and represents revenue from both consumer and advertising spending. Note that service providers do not break this revenue out into consumer and advertising components.

Digital music downloading revenue ($ mn)
Downloads includes revenues from any licensed recorded music downloaded via app stores or licensed services (such as iTunes). This sub-component is digital and represents consumer spending.

Mobile music revenue ($ mn)
Mobile music here refers to the purchase of ringtone and ring-back tones only. Revenues from music services that are delivered wirelessly to connected devices (such as Spotify) are not included here but are included under digital music streaming or digital music downloading (depending on the type of service). This sub-component is digital and represents revenue from consumer spending.

Total live music revenue ($ mn)
For live music, consumer spend on tickets is included along with sponsorship revenue. Included in this category are ticket sales to all types of music events, from small clubs to arenas and festivals, and all music genres, ranging from popular music to classical. We do not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. This sub-component is non-digital and represents revenue from consumer and advertising spending.

Live music ticket sales revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from consumer spend on tickets to live music events. Included in this category are ticket sales to all types of music events, from small clubs to arenas and festivals, and all music genres, ranging from popular music to classical. This does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. This sub-component is non-digital and represents revenue from consumer spending.

Live music sponsorship revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from sponsorship of live music events. Included in this category are all types of music events, from small clubs to arenas and festivals, and all music genres, ranging from popular music to classical. This does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. This sub-component is non-digital and represents revenue from advertising spending.

Total music unit sales (mn)
The total number of music units sold at retail level, both physical and digital. A unit can be either a single track (as either a physical or digital single) or an album (either digital or physical).

Digital music unit sales (mn)
The number of individual music tracks sold digitally – including digital singles, albums and paid-for music videos.

Physical music unit sales (mn)
The number of physical music units sold, including albums on CD, single sound recordings and paid-for music videos.

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Newspaper publishing

This segment comprises revenue from both circulation (consumer spend on newspapers) and advertising in newspapers, and considers both physical print editions and digital editions. It includes all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Circulation revenue comprises consumer spend on newspapers, including print (newsstand purchases and subscriptions to the print edition) and digital (digital subscriptions and payments for newspapers delivered direct to connected devices such as a PC, tablet or mobile phone, including fees to access online content).

Advertising revenue considers advertising spend on both print editions of newspapers and digital newspapers, which includes all advertising on newspaper websites, tablet apps and mobile phone apps.

In the US and Canada only, print newspaper advertising revenue is split between classified advertising revenue, national advertising revenue and retail advertising revenue in printed newspapers. Other markets do not make this split. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising.

Sub-component definitions

Total newspaper revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from both consumer spend on newspapers (both physical and digital), and advertising on newspapers (physical and digital). This segment considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total newspaper circulation revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spend on newspapers, comprising print (newsstand purchases and subscriptions to the print edition) and digital (digital subscriptions and payments for newspapers delivered direct to connected devices such as a PC, tablet or mobile phone, including fees to access online content). This sub-component considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Print newspaper circulation revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spend on print newspapers, including newsstand purchases and subscriptions to the print edition. This sub-component considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Digital newspaper circulation revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spend on digital editions of newspapers, including digital subscriptions and payments for newspapers delivered direct to connected devices such as a PC, tablet or mobile phone, and including fees to access online content. This segment considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total newspaper advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising spend on both print and digital newspapers, which includes all advertising on newspaper websites, tablet apps and mobile phone apps. This segment considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Print newspaper advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising spend in printed newspapers. This segment considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Print classified newspaper advertising revenue (US & Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, this sub-segment comprises revenue from classified advertising spend in printed newspapers. Other markets do not make this split. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising.

Print national newspaper revenue (US & Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, this sub-segment comprises revenue from national advertising spend in printed newspapers. Other markets do not make this split. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising.

Print retail newspaper advertising revenue (US & Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, this sub-segment comprises revenue from retail advertising spend in printed newspapers. Other markets do not make this split. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising.

Digital newspaper advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising spend in digital newspapers, including all advertising on newspaper websites, tablet apps and mobile phone apps. This segment considers all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is digital, and is from advertising spending.

Average daily unit circulation total (000)
The average number of readers accessing a newspaper, either a printed or digital edition (e.g. a newspaper website or digital edition of a newspaper).

Average daily unit circulation print (000)
The average number of daily users accessing printed newspapers.

Average daily unit circulation digital (000)
The average number of daily users accessing newspapers digitally.

Free dailies newspaper circulation (000)
The average number of daily users accessing free newspapers distributed daily.

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Out-of-home advertising

This segment consists of advertiser spending on out-of-home media.

OOH comprises total advertiser spending on all formats of out-of-home media, and is split between physical and digital. Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts.

Traditional physical out-of-home media includes billboards, street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks) transit displays (bus sides, taxi toppers), sports arena displays, and captive ad networks (in such venues as elevators).

Digital OOH includes any out-of-home advertising media that is Internet-connected (e.g. smart billboards).

Sub-component definitions

Total out-of-home advertising revenue ($ mn)
Total advertiser spending on all formats of out-of-home media, including billboards, street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks), transit displays (bus sides, taxi toppers), sports arena displays, and captive ad networks (in such venues as elevators). Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. This is both digital and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Physical out-of-home advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising on traditional physical out-of-home media, including billboards, street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks, etc.), transit displays (bus sides, taxi toppers), sports arena displays, and captive ad networks (in such venues as elevators). Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. This is non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Digital out-of-home advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from any out-of-home advertising media that is Internet-connected (e.g. smart billboards). Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. This is digital, and is from advertising spending.

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Radio

This segment includes revenue from consumer spend on radio licence fees (where applicable) and all advertising spend on radio stations and radio networks.

Public radio licence fees are included for applicable markets in EMEA and APAC. Where a mandatory fee covers both TV and radio, we have estimated radio's share of that total (note the TV subscriptions segment includes the whole fee; radio's share is removed when calculating total revenue to avoid double counting).

Revenue from radio advertising on radio stations and radio networks is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. In the US and Canada only, revenue from advertising spend on terrestrial broadcast radio is considered separately from online advertising revenue.

In the US and Canada only, revenues from subscriptions to satellite radio services (such as SiriusXM) are also considered, as is advertising spend on satellite radio.

Sub-component definitions

Total radio revenue ($ mn)
The Radio segment includes revenue from consumer spend on radio licence fees (where applicable) and all advertising spend on radio stations and radio networks. In the US and Canada, advertising spend in both Internet radio and satellite radio is also considered, as well as revenues from subscriptions to satellite radio services (such as SiriusXM). This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Public radio licence fees ($ mn)
Public radio licence fees are included for applicable markets in EMEA and APAC. Where a mandatory fee covers both TV and radio, we have estimated radio's share of that total (note the TV subscriptions segment includes the whole fee; radio's share is removed when calculating total revenue to avoid double counting). This revenue is non-digital and is from consumer spending.

Radio advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from traditional radio advertising, as well as revenue in the US and Canada only for both online radio advertising and satellite radio advertising. Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. This revenue is both digital (US and Canada only) and non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

Traditional radio advertising revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from advertising on terrestrial radio stations and networks. This is for every country except the US and Canada, which track the market differently. This revenue is non-digital and is from advertising spending.

Terrestrial broadcast advertising revenue (US + Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, revenue from advertising spend on terrestrial broadcast radio (separate from online advertising revenue). This is non-digital, and from advertising spending.

Terrestrial online advertising revenue (US + Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, revenue from advertising spend on online radio. (This is also included within Internet advertising but figures for total advertising eliminate any double counting.) This revenue is digital, and is from advertising spending.

Total satellite revenue (US + Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, total revenue from satellite-delivered radio services (such as SiriusXM) including both subscription and advertising. This is considered non-digital and is from both consumer and advertising spending.

Satellite radio subscription revenue (US + Canada only) ($ mn)
In the US and Canada only, consumer spend on subscriptions to satellite-delivered radio services (such as SiriusXM). This is non-digital and is from consumer spending.

Satellite radio advertising revenue (US + Canada only) ($ mn) (also included in Radio advertising revenue)
In the US and Canada only, advertising revenue from satellite-delivered radio services (such as SiriusXM). This is also included within Radio advertising revenue. This is considered non-digital, and is from advertising spending.

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TV advertising

This segment comprises all TV advertising revenue, including broadcast and online. Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by free-to-air networks (terrestrial) and pay-TV operators (multichannel). Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts and reflects revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll ads around TV content distributed by broadcaster-owned websites.

This segment includes revenues only from TV viewed online, delivered by traditional broadcasters via their own websites, and excludes advertising around video content on Internet-based sites such as YouTube (whose revenues appear under video Internet advertising). Advertising revenue is net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts in all territories. This revenue is a combination of non-digital (TV) and digital (online).

Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by pay-TV operators (multichannel) and free-to-air networks (terrestrial).

Multichannel includes non-core network advertising revenue generated via pay-TV networks (cable, digital terrestrial television (DTT), Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) or satellite) including revenue from free-to-air spin-off digital channels launched by the core terrestrial networks. This revenue is considered non-digital.

Terrestrial covers advertising sold on traditional, core, over-the-air TV channels even if they are viewed via a subscription service or free digital TV. This revenue is considered non-digital.

For the US only, multichannel advertising is split between cable networks and multichannel systems, while terrestrial advertising is split between broadcast networks and televisions stations. Other territories do not make this distinction.

Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts only, combining revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll. Overlays (where advertisers use a video overlay layer to deliver an ad unit) are not included within this definition. This revenue is considered digital.

Sub-component definitions

Total TV advertising revenue ($ mn)
This comprises all TV advertising revenue, including broadcast and online. Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by free-to-air networks (terrestrial) and pay-TV operators (multichannel). Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts and reflects revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll ads around TV content distributed by broadcaster-owned websites. This section includes revenues only from broadcast TV viewed online, and excludes advertising around video content on Internet-based sites such as YouTube (whose revenues appear under video Internet advertising). TV advertising revenue is net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts in all territories. This revenue is a combination of non-digital (TV) and digital (online), and from advertiser spending.

Total broadcast TV advertising revenue ($ mn)
Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by pay-TV operators (multichannel) and free-to-air networks (terrestrial). This revenue is considered non-digital and is from advertising.

Total multichannel TV advertising revenue ($ mn)
Multichannel includes non-core network advertising revenue generated via pay-TV networks (cable, digital terrestrial television (DTT), Internet protocol television (IPTV) or satellite) including revenue from free-to-air spin-off digital channels launched by the core terrestrial networks. This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Multichannel TV advertising revenue (non-US) ($ mn)
Multichannel includes non-core network advertising revenue generated via pay-TV networks (cable, digital terrestrial television (DTT), Internet protocol television (IPTV) or satellite) including revenue from free-to-air spin-off digital channels launched by the core terrestrial networks. This segment excludes the US market which splits multichannel between cable networks and multichannel systems. This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Cable networks advertising revenue (US only) ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from cable networks (US only – other territories do not make this split). This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Multichannel systems advertising revenue (US only) ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from multichannel systems (US only – other territories do not make this split). This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Total terrestrial TV advertising revenue ($ mn)
Terrestrial covers advertising sold on traditional, core, over-the-air TV channels even if they are viewed via a subscription service or free digital TV. This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Terrestrial TV advertising revenue (non-US) ($ mn)
Terrestrial covers advertising sold on traditional, core, over-the-air TV channels even if they are viewed via a subscription service or free digital TV. This sub-component excludes the US which splits terrestrial between broadcast networks and televisions stations. This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Broadcast networks advertising revenue (US only) ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from broadcast networks (US only – other territories do not split terrestrial between broadcast networks and television stations). This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Television stations advertising revenue (US only) ($ mn)
Advertising revenue from television stations (US only – other territories do not split terrestrial between broadcast networks and televisions stations). This revenue is considered non-digital, and from advertiser spending.

Online TV advertising revenue ($ mn)
Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts only combining revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll. Overlays (where advertisers use a video overlay layer to deliver an ad unit) are not included within this definition. This section includes revenues only from broadcast TV viewed online on broadcaster-owned websites, and excludes TV content viewed on sites not owned by broadcasters (such as YouTube, which is included under video Internet advertising). This revenue is considered digital, and from advertiser spending.

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TV and video

This segment comprises consumer spending on basic and premium TV subscriptions; consumer spending on public licence fees where applicable; and home video revenue (including both physical and digital home video, and including sell-through, rental and subscription models). This revenue is both digital and non-digital.

Consumer spending on basic and premium subscriptions includes video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) accessed from cable operators, satellite providers, telephone companies and other multichannel distributors. It considers only the primary TV subscription in each household so penetration will not exceed 100%. It captures all instances where a TV service can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee to an operator.

Cable TV households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology. Digital cable services deliver digital programming to viewers, whereas analogue cable services provide analogue programming.

Internet protocol TV (IPTV) households receive TV programming primarily via a telecoms operator wholly or partly using managed Internet protocol TV technology.

Satellite TV households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTH/SMATV satellite-TV technology.

Digital terrestrial TV (DTT) households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTT technology.

Home video includes both electronic and physical home video of films, TV programming and other premium video content. Revenue comprises sell-through and rental of physical home video, and subscription and transactional revenues from electronic home video.

Physical home video is split between rentals and sell-through and covers consumer spend on movies, TV programming and other premium filmed entertainment content, on DVD or Blu-ray. The purchase of physical home video products – on DVD or Blu-ray – is included here with all spending considered including retail and online. Rental revenue comprises spending on rentals of videos at video stores and other retail outlets along with DVD or Blu-ray discs distributed by mail services. Ultraviolet sales – where the digital version is bundled with a physical disc – are recorded under physical home video revenue.

Electronic home video considers revenue from on-demand video services that offer premium filmed entertainment content (including movies, TV programming or other premium video content) either via a TV subscription provider, or an over-the-top (OTT)/streaming service (such as Netflix).

Electronic home video through-TV-subscriptions comprises revenue from both video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) services provided by a TV provider ¬– including cable, satellite and telco providers – as part of a TV subscription package, or as an enhancement to that core package. This category excludes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services that do not require a subscription, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, but includes incremental revenue from "TV Everywhere" packages (such as Sky's Go or Comcast’s Xfinity) that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services.

Electronic home video through OTT/streaming services comprises revenue from stand-alone services (such as Netflix) whose filmed entertainment content is accessed via a broadband or wireless Internet connection and is viewable on a PC, TV, tablet, smartphone, or other device which bypasses TV subscription providers. These services are split between transactional video on demand (TVOD) and subscription video on demand (SVOD). Note that this category also includes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, that do not require a subscription to a core TV service, but excludes revenue from operator "TV Everywhere" packages (such as Sky's Go or Comcast’s Xfinity) that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services.

TVOD services (such as iTunes) deliver filmed entertainment content via the open Internet and do not require a subscription. SVOD services (such as Netflix) are also delivered over the open Internet, but require a subscription.

In the US only, total electronic home video revenue is split between sell-through and rentals revenue. Electronic home video – sell-through revenue is split between revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered over the top of the networks by aggregators such as Amazon, and revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered via multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs) such as Comcast. Electronic home video – rentals revenue is split between SVOD revenue, such as Netflix, and TVOD revenue. TVOD revenue is further split between OTT revenue (from digital rentals delivered over the top of networks by companies such as iTunes), and MVPD revenue (from digital rentals delivered via MVPDs such as Comcast or Verizon).

The segment also includes consumer spending on public licence fees where these are required (in EMEA and APAC). Where the public licence fee also covers provision of radio services, a proportion of the total has also been included in the Radio segment, but 100% of the total fee is shown in the TV section, and figures for total revenue eliminate any double counting. This revenue is non-digital, and from consumer spending.

Sub-component definitions

Total TV and video revenue ($ mn)
This segment considers consumer spending on basic and premium subscriptions, including video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) accessed from cable operators, satellite providers, telephone companies and other multichannel distributors. It captures all instances where a TV service can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee, but does not include services that are provided solely over the open Internet, such as Netflix. The segment also includes consumer spending on public licence fees where applicable. The segment also considers home video revenue (including both physical and digital home video, and including sell-through, rental and subscription models). This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and from consumer spending.

TV subscription revenue ($ mn)
This is the revenue from consumer subscriptions to TV services. It captures all instances where a TV service can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee, but does not include services that are provided solely over the open Internet, such as Netflix. It considers only the primary TV subscription in each household so penetration will not exceed 100%. This revenue is considered non-digital, and from consumer spending.

Public licence fee revenue ($ mn)
This is consumer spending on public TV licence fees where these are required (in EMEA and APAC). Where the fee also covers provision of radio services, a proportion of the total has also been included in the Radio segment, but 100% of the total fee is shown in the TV segment, and figures for total licence fee revenue eliminate any double counting. This revenue is non-digital, and from consumer spending.

Subscription TV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for TV subscription service, i.e. a TV service that can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee. This definition does not include services that are provided solely over the open Internet, such as Netflix.

Subscription TV penetration (%)
The proportion of all TV households with a paid-for TV subscription service, i.e. a TV service that can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee. This definition does not include services that are provided solely over the open Internet, such as Netflix.

Total cable TV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for cable TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology.

Digital cable TV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for digital cable TV service, i.e. TV households receiving digital TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology.

Analogue cable TV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for analogue cable TV service, i.e. TV households receiving analogue TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology.

Cable TV penetration (%)
The proportion of TV households with a paid-for cable TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology.

IPTV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for Internet protocol TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via a telecoms operator wholly or partly using managed Internet protocol TV technology.

IPTV penetration (%)
The proportion of all TV households with a paid-for Internet protocol TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via a telecoms operator wholly or partly using managed Internet protocol TV technology.

Satellite TV households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for satellite-delivered TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTH/SMATV satellite TV technology.

Satellite TV penetration (%)
The proportion of all TV households with a paid-for satellite-delivered TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTH/SMATV satellite TV technology.

Pay DTT households (mn)
The number of households with a paid-for digital terrestrial TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via digital terrestrial TV (DTT) technology.

Pay DTT penetration (%)
The proportion of TV households with a paid-for digital terrestrial TV service, i.e. TV households receiving TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via digital terrestrial TV (DTT) technology.

Total home video revenue ($ mn)
Home video includes both electronic and physical home video of films, TV programming and other premium video content. Revenue comprises sell-through and rental of physical home video, and subscription and transactional revenues from electronic home video. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Total physical home video revenue ($ mn)
Physical home video is split between rentals and sell-through and covers consumer spend on movies, TV programming and other premium filmed entertainment content, on DVD or Blu-ray. The revenue is non-digital and is from consumer spending.

Physical home video – sell-through revenue ($ mn)
The purchase of physical home video products – on DVD or Blu-ray – is included here with all spending considered including retail and online. The revenue is non-digital and is from consumer spending.

Physical home video – sell-through unit sales
The number of units (DVD and Blu-ray discs) purchased in the year referenced.

Physical home video – sell-through average price ($)
The average price paid by consumers for a physical home video unit (DVD or Blu-ray) in the year referenced.

Physical home video – rentals revenue ($ mn)
Rentals revenue comprises spending on rentals of videos at video stores and other retail outlets along with DVD or Blu-ray discs distributed by mail services. This revenue is non-digital and from consumer spending.

Total electronic home video revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from on-demand video services that offer premium filmed entertainment content (including movies, TV programming or other premium video content) either via a TV subscription provider, or an over-the-top (OTT)/streaming service (such as Netflix). This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

Electronic home video through-TV-subscription revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from both video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) services provided by a TV subscription provider as part of a TV subscription package, or as an enhancement to that core package. Note that this category excludes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, but includes incremental revenue from 'TV Everywhere' packages (such as Sky's Go) that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services. This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

Total electronic home video OTT/streaming revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from stand-alone over-the-top (OTT)/streaming services (such as Netflix) whose filmed entertainment content is accessed via a broadband or wireless Internet connection and is viewable on a PC, TV, tablet, smartphone, or other device which bypasses TV subscription providers. Note that this category also includes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, that do not require a subscription to a core TV service. This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

Electronic home video OTT/streaming – TVOD revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from transactional video on demand (TVOD) services (such as iTunes), that deliver filmed entertainment content via the open Internet and which do not require a subscription. This revenue is digital and is from consumer spending.

Electronic home video OTT/streaming – SVOD revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from stand-alone subscription video on demand (SVOD) services delivered over the open Internet, such as Netflix. Note that this category includes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, but excludes revenue from operator 'TV Everywhere' packages that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services. This revenue is digital and comes from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – sell-through revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered over the top of networks, and via multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs). This revenue is digital and comes from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – sell-through OTT revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered over the top of networks by aggregators such as Amazon. This revenue is digital and comes from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – sell-through MVPD revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered via MVPDs such as Comcast. This revenue is digital and comes from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – rentals revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from electronic rental services delivered over the top of networks or via MVPDs. This revenue is digital and comes from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – rentals TVOD revenue ($ mn)
Rentals revenue from TVOD services, split between OTT and MVPD revenue. This revenue is digital and is from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – rentals TVOD OTT revenue ($ mn)
Rentals revenue from TVOD services delivered over the top of networks by companies such as iTunes. This revenue is digital and is from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – rentals TVOD MVPD revenue ($ mn)
TVOD revenue from digital rentals delivered via MVPDs such as Comcast or Verizon. This revenue is digital and is from consumer spending.

US ONLY – Electronic home video – rentals SVOD revenue ($ mn)
Rentals revenue from subscription video on demand services such as Netflix. This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

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Video games

This segment comprises consumer spending on video games software and services (not hardware or devices) across both traditional and social/casual gaming, as well as revenue from advertising via video games. All sub-categories are exclusive of each other.

Traditional gaming comprises revenues associated with playing games on PCs and games consoles (both TV-connected and portable). This includes physical (disc-based) game sales at retail (both bricks-and-mortar and online retailers), digital game sales (including Steam, Good Old Games and Origin for PCs, and the PlayStation Store, Xbox Games Store and Nintendo eShop for consoles), and additional downloadable content (DLC) and subscription services. Online/microtransaction revenue also includes spending associated with free-to-play Massively Multiplayer Online games (MMOs), but does not include spending on social and casual browser-based games, which are included in the social/casual gaming component.

Social/casual gaming revenues includes consumer spending on and in app-based games on tablets and mobile phones, and browser games aimed at a casual audience (e.g. Ruzzle and Zynga’s Words with Friends). This includes revenues associated with the purchase of social and casual game apps, subscription services for social and casual games, and the purchase of virtual items within social and casual games. This also includes revenues associated with “hardcore” mobile games (e.g. Infinity Blade 2).

Video games advertising revenue includes only static advertising in video games. It does not include dynamic advertising inserted into or displayed alongside the game in an app or browser during play.

Sub-component definitions

Total video games revenue ($ mn)
This segment comprises consumer spending on video games software and services (not hardware or devices) as well as revenue from advertising via video games. Note that all sub-categories are exclusive of each other. The revenue is both digital and non-digital, and from both consumer and advertising spending.

Total video games consumer revenue ($ mn)
Total revenue from the sale of physical and digital video games across all platforms, including console, PC, online and mobile. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and from consumer spending

Traditional gaming revenue ($ mn)
Traditional gaming comprises revenues associated with playing games on PCs and games consoles (both TV-connected and portable). This includes physical (disc-based) game sales at retail (both bricks-and-mortar and online retailers), digital game sales (including Steam, Good Old Games and Origin for PCs, and the PlayStation Store, Xbox Games Store and Nintendo eShop for consoles), and additional downloadable content (DLC) and subscription services. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and from consumer spending.

Total games console revenue ($ mn)
All revenue associated with playing games of any type on a games console (both in-home and handheld) including game sales at retail, digital game sales, additional downloadable content (DLC) and subscription services. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Physical console games sell-through revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of physical console games. This is non-digital and from consumer spending.

Digital console games sell-through revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sale of digital console games. This is digital and from consumer spending.

Online/microtransaction console games revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from additional downloadable content and subscription services for console games. This is digital and from consumer spending.

Total PC games revenue ($ mn)
Revenues associated with PC games sales, including sales revenues from retail stores and digital download stores (such as Steam and Origin) and additional downloadable content. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.

Physical PC games sell-through revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of physical PC games. This is non-digital and from consumer spending.

Digital PC games sell-through revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from the sales of digital PC games. This is digital and from consumer spending.

Online/microtransaction PC games revenue ($ mn)
Revenue from additional downloadable content and subscription services for PC games, and spending associated with free-to-play Massively Multiplayer Online games (MMOs). This is digital and from consumer spending.

Social/casual gaming revenue ($ mn)
Social/casual gaming revenues includes consumer spending on and in app-based games on tablets and mobile phones, and browser games aimed at a casual audience (e.g. Ruzzle and Zynga’s Words with Friends). This includes revenues associated with the purchase of social and casual game apps, subscription services for social and casual games, and the purchase of virtual items within social and casual games. This also includes revenues associated with "hardcore" mobile games (e.g. Infinity Blade 2). This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

App-based social/casual gaming revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spending on and in app-based games on tablets and mobile phones. This includes revenues associated with the purchase of social and casual game apps, subscription services for social and casual games, and the purchase of virtual items within social and casual games. This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

Browser-based social/casual gaming revenue ($ mn)
Consumer spending on browser games aimed at a casual audience (e.g. Ruzzle and Zynga’s Words with Friends). This includes subscription services for social and casual games, and the purchase of virtual items within social and casual games. This revenue is digital and from consumer spending.

Video games advertising revenue ($ mn)
Video games advertising comprises revenues from advertising built into games on any platform and access type including in-game advertising. It does not include advertising delivered dynamically via the Internet. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising spending.

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Contact us

Pauline Orchard
Global entertainment and media marketing leader
Tel: +44 (0) 20 780 49783
Email

Nicholas Braude
Global TICE Public Relations
Tel: +1 (857) 248 1323
Email

Deborah Bothun
Global Entertainment & Media Leader, PwC US
Tel: +1 (213) 217 3302
Email

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