Shift of global economic power to emerging economies set to continue in long run, with India, Indonesia and Vietnam among star performers

Latest PwC report projects that for GDP measured at purchasing power parities (PPPs):

  • World economy could double in size by 2042
  • China has already overtaken the US to be largest economy based on GDP in PPP terms, and could be the largest valued at market exchange rates before 2030
  • India could overtake the US by 2050 to go into 2nd place and Indonesia could move into 4th place by 2050, overtaking advanced economies like Japan and Germany
  • By 2050, six of the seven largest economies in the world could be emerging markets
  • Vietnam could be the world’s fastest growing large economy over the period to 2050, rising to 20th in the global GDP rankings by that date
  • The EU27’s share of world GDP could fall to below 10% by 2050
  • UK could grow faster than the EU27 average in the long run if it can remain open to trade, investment and talented people after Brexit
  • Turkey could overtake Italy by 2030 if it can overcome current political instability and make progress on economic reforms
  • Nigeria has potential to rise up the global GDP rankings, but only if it can diversify its economy and improve governance standards and infrastructure
  • Colombia and Poland have potential to be the fastest growing large economies in their respective regions – Latin America and the EU.

The long-term global economic power shift away from the established advanced economies is set to continue over the period to 2050, as emerging market countries continue to boost their share of world GDP in the long run despite recent mixed performance in some of these economies.

This is one of the key findings from the latest report from PwC economists on the theme of the World in 2050: The long view: how will the global economic order change by 2050? This presents projections of potential GDP growth up to 2050 for 32 of the largest economies in the world, which together account for around 85% of global GDP. These projections are based on the latest update of a detailed long-term global growth model first developed by PwC in 2006.

The report projects that the world economy could double in size by 2042, growing at an annual average real rate of around 2.5% between 2016 and 2050. This growth will be driven largely by emerging market and developing countries, with the E7 economies of Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Turkey growing at an annual average rate of around 3.5% over the next 34 years, compared to only around 1.6% for the advanced G7 nations of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the US.

Indonesia is among the group of emerging market economies along with Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia and Turkey. Emerging markets will continue to be the growth engine of the global economy. By 2050, the E7 economies could have increased their share of world GDP from around 35% to nearly 50%. Based on GDP at PPPs, China is projected to be the largest economy in the world, followed by India and with Indonesia the fourth largest.

Irhoan TanudiredjaPwC Indonesia Senior Partner

We will continue to see the shift in global economic power away from established advanced economies towards emerging economies in Asia and elsewhere. The E7 could comprise almost 50% of world GDP by 2050, while the G7’s share declines to only just over 20%

John HawksworthPwC Chief Economist and co-author of the report

Table 1 below sets out how PwC projects global GDP rankings at PPPs (see Note 1) will evolve.

GDP PPP rankings 2016 rankings 2030 rankings 2050 rankings
  Country GDP at PPP Country Projected GDP at PPP Country Projected GDP at PPP
1 China 21269 China 38008 China 58499
2 United States 18562 United States 23475 India 44128
3 India 8721 India 19511 United States 34102
4 Japan 4932 Japan 5606 Indonesia 10502
5 Germany 3979 Indonesia 5424 Brazil 7540
6 Russia 3745 Russia 4736 Russia 7131
7 Brazil 3135 Germany 4707 Mexico 6863
8 Indonesia 3028 Brazil 4439 Japan 6779
9 United Kingdom 2788 Mexico 3661 Germany 6138
10 France 2737 United Kingdom 3638 United Kingdom 5369
11 Mexico 2307 France 3377 Turkey 5184
12 Italy 2221 Turkey 2996 France 4705
13 South Korea 1929 Saudi Arabia 2755 Saudi Arabia 4694
14 Turkey 1906 South Korea 2651 Nigeria 4348
15 Saudi Arabia 1731 Italy 2541 Egypt 4333
16 Spain 1690 Iran 2354 Pakistan 4236
17 Canada 1674 Spain 2159 Iran 3900
18 Iran 1459 Canada 2141 South Korea 3539
19 Australia 1189 Egypt 2049 Philippines 3334
20 Thailand 1161 Pakistan 1868 Vietnam 3176
21 Egypt 1105 Nigeria 1794 Italy 3115
22 Nigeria 1089 Thailand 1732 Canada 3100
23 Poland 1052 Australia 1663 Bangladesh 3064
24 Pakistan 988 Philippines 1615 Malaysia 2815
25 Argentina 879 Malaysia 1506 Thailand 2782
26 Netherlands 866 Poland 1505 Spain 2732
27 Malaysia 864 Argentina 1342 South Africa 2570
28 Philippines 802 Bangladesh 1324 Australia 2564
29 South Africa 736 Vietnam 1303 Argentina 2365
30 Colombia 690 South Africa 1148 Poland 2103
31 Bangladesh 628 Colombia 1111 Colombia 2074
32 Vietnam 595 Netherlands 1080 Netherlands 1496

Sources: IMF for 2016 estimates (with an update for Turkey), PwC projections for 2030 and 2050

When looking at GDP measured at market exchange rates (MER), there is not quite such a radical shift in global economic power. But China still emerges as the largest economy in the world before 2030 and India is still clearly the third largest in the world by 2050.

But the spotlight will certainly be on the newer emerging markets as they take centre stage. By 2050, Indonesia and Mexico are projected to be larger than Japan, Germany, the UK or France, while Turkey could overtake Italy. In terms of growth, Vietnam, India and Bangladesh could be the fastest growing economies over the period to 2050, averaging growth of around 5% per year as illustrated in Figure 1, which also shows how growth breaks down between population and GDP per capita.

Figure 1: Projected average real GDP growth per annum, 2016-50
Figure 1: Projected average real GDP growth per annum, 2016-50

Source: PwC analysis based on UN population projections

Growth in many emerging economies will be supported by relatively fast-growing populations, boosting domestic demand and the size of the workforce. This will need, however, to be complemented with investments in education and improvement in macroeconomic fundamentals to ensure there are sufficient jobs for the growing number of young people in these countries.

John Hawksworth

Nigeria has the potential to move eight places up the GDP rankings to 14th by 2050, but it will only realise this potential if it can diversify its economy away from oil and strengthen its institutions and infrastructure.

Colombia and Poland also exhibit great potential, and are projected to be the fastest growing large economies in their respective regions, Latin America and the EU (though Turkey is projected to grow faster if we consider a wider definition of Europe).

Average incomes

One bit of good news for today’s advanced economies is that they will continue to have higher average incomes – with the possible exception of Italy, all of the G7 continue to sit above the E7 in the rankings of GDP per capita in 2050. Emerging markets are projected close the income gap gradually over time, but full convergence of income levels across the world is likely to take until well beyond 2050.

China achieves a middling average income level by 2050 (see Map 1), while India remains in the lower half of the income range given its starting point, despite relative high projected growth over time. This illustrates that while strong population growth can be a key driver of total GDP growth , it will take much longer to eliminate differences in average income levels.

Map 1: Projected real GDP per capita in 2050

Map 1: Projected real GDP per capita in 2050


  1. PPPs vs MERs: there is no single correct way to measure the relative size of economies at different stages of development. Depending on the purpose of the exercise, GDP at either market exchange rates (MERs) or purchasing power parity rates (PPPs) may be the most appropriate measure. In general, GDP at PPPs is a better indicator of average living standards or volumes of outputs or inputs because this corrects for relative price differences, while GDP at MERs is a better measure of the relative total size of markets for businesses at a given point in time. However, historical evidence shows that MERs will generally, in the long run, tend to move up towards PPPs for emerging economies as their average income levels gradually narrow the gap with the current advanced economies. An econometric equation within the PwC long-term growth model that reflects this historical relationship forms the basis for the projections of GDP at MERs in the report. This also makes the common simplifying assumption that PPP exchange rates remain constant in real terms over time. Projections of MERs are subject to particularly high margins of uncertainty, however, which is why both the report and this media release focus primarily on projections of GDP at PPPs. But Appendix B in the full report also shows projections for GDP at MERs to 2050 for the 32 economies in the study.  
  2. A copy of the full report The long view: how will the global economic order change by 2050? will be published on 7th February 2017 at
  3. This report is part of PwC’s wider research programme on the megatrends shaping global economic and business development. More details can be found here:
  4. More details on business strategies for emerging markets can be found in reports by the PwC Growth Markets Centre, which are available from:


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