This segment comprises revenue generated from the sale of consumer books (i.e. bought by consumers for personal use), educational books (i.e. bought by consumers or institutions for educational use) and professional books (i.e. targeted at professional users, such as legal publishing), including both print and electronic editions. Revenues are assigned to the format of the book sold, rather than the means of distribution, i.e. print editions bought from online retailers contribute to print revenues. Audio books are included within the print category. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.
Educational books are those bought by schools, government agencies and students for educational use. In the US only, this includes a split between Elhi (books targeted at elementary and high school students) and college textbooks (including postgraduate textbooks). Other markets do not have this split. We split the educational market between print/audio and electronic formats. Books in electronic format including library and institutional subscriptions to electronic book databases are also included. Educational books do not include supplemental educational spending, administrative software or testing materials. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.
Professional books are those targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) across both print (including audio) and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.
This segment covers business-to-business media, comprising business information, directory advertising, trade magazines, professional books and trade shows.
Business information includes spending on business-focussed data and intelligence and is split into three separate categories: financial, marketing and industry. Financial includes securities, and economic credit data; marketing includes sales and survey research, mailing lists and demographic databases; and industry includes data and content covering market share information and competitor intelligence. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is considered consumer spending.
Directory advertising covers the advertising spend on both print and digital editions of directories such as Yellow Pages. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.
Trade magazines comprises both advertising and circulation revenue from magazines aimed at a professional audience. This segment considers advertising spend in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or discrete digital editions of magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Circulation revenue comprises spending by readers on printed trade magazines including single copies direct from retail outlets or via subscriptions, as well as spending on downloads of individual digital copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.
Professional books are those targeted at professional users (e.g. legal publishing) and this segment considers revenue generated by sales across both print (including audio) and digital. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from consumer spending.
Trade shows considers revenue from spending by businesses on exhibition at trade shows. It does not include sponsorship of events. This revenue is non-digital, and is considered advertising spending.
This segment comprises cinema revenue (including box office and advertising). This revenue is non-digital, and includes both consumer and advertising spending.
Cinema revenue comprises consumer spend at the box office for theatrical motion pictures and advertising spend at the cinema including on-screen adverts prior to the movie. It does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions. This revenue is non-digital, and from both consumer and advertising spending.
This segment considers the sum of IP traffic that crosses the Internet backbone. This represents all wireless data traffic, including cellular data traffic over 2G, 3G and 4G networks, plus Wi-Fi and fixed broadband.
This segment is split between devices (smartphones, non-smartphones, tablets, other portable and fixed broadband) and by content categories (video, games, music, Web browsing, social networking, communications and other digital content consumed).
This segment considers spend on accessing the Internet and is split into two categories: mobile Internet and fixed broadband.
Fixed broadband includes both wired and wireless connections and is a subscription to residential or business Internet access services delivered to a home, office or other fixed location provided by cable, MMDS modem, xDSL, FTTx, WiMAX, proprietary wireless broadband, Ethernet, power line communications and satellite broadband technologies. Satellite services which rely on a fixed device mounted to a house are used in similar ways to, and so serve the same market need as, xDSL, FTTx, cable modem and other forms of fixed-line broadband, and are thus considered a form of fixed broadband. Fixed broadband households are further broken down into high-, medium- and low-speed connections.
Mobile Internet considers Internet access over the medium of cellular air interfaces generally via a 2.5G network or higher. This covers Internet access via mobile devices and for connected devices that use embedded modems, dongles and data cards. Mobile Internet connections are further broken down into high-, medium- and low-speed connections.
Smartphones are defined as mobile handsets that offer advanced computing capabilities and the ability to multi-task enabled by an advanced operating system. A "smartphone connection" relates to an active SIM card with or without a data plan used through a smartphone device rather than a unique subscriber using a smartphone service. Smartphone penetration reflects the percentage of all mobile phone connections in a territory that are smartphones. By extension the remaining mobile phone connections are non-smartphones.
Tablets are defined as mobile computing devices with a screen size of between five and 12 inches (17.8cm and 30.5cm) and using touchscreen as their primary input method. The tablet forecast includes all active devices in this category and penetration in this instance reflects the number of tablets as a percentage of the population.
App downloads refers to any applications that are downloaded from an app store and installed on connected devices such as smartphones, tablets and smart TVs. An app store is a distributor of apps for one or more mobile or TV operating system (OS) ecosystem (e.g. Apple App Store, Google Play and Getjar). The data is based on ecosystem totals for all devices across all bearers – including cellular, Wi-Fi, and fixed. Both paid and free apps are counted, but only unique downloads are included, not app updates or re-downloads.
This segment comprises spending by advertisers either through a wired Internet connection or via mobile devices. The types of advertising (wired or mobile) are classified primarily by format rather than transport mechanism or device. This revenue is digital, and from advertiser spending.
Total Internet advertising comprises online television, newspaper, consumer magazine, trade magazine, directory advertising and online radio (for North America only), which are also all included in their respective segments. The wired sub-segments consider paid search, display and classified formats. Display is broken out further between video and other display.
“Social” advertising occurs across a range of wired and wireless sub-segments but is not broken out separately. Figures for total advertising eliminate any double counting.
Search Internet advertising involves placing ads on web pages that show results of search engine queries (e.g. Google AdWords).
Display Internet advertising comprises revenues from traditional ads placed on web pages in many forms, including banner ads and branded content/native advertising. Other Internet advertising formats (affiliates, rich media, email) are also included under this category. Ads sold through programmatic advertising are included here, but we do not break out revenue by method of selling.
Broken out from display Internet advertising revenue is video Internet advertising revenue, which comprises revenue from in-stream video advertising (pre-rolls, mid-rolls, post-rolls) and out-of-stream video advertising. It includes revenue from both traditional broadcasters and Internet-based websites, including YouTube.
Classified Internet advertising is advertising posted online in a categorical listing of products or services. A fee is paid by an advertiser to display an ad or listing around a specific vertical such as automotive, recruiting or real estate.
Mobile Internet advertising comprises all advertising delivered to mobile devices via formats designed for the specific device. It is split out into the sub-segments of mobile paid search Internet advertising revenue and mobile display Internet advertising revenue. Mobile display Internet advertising revenue is broken down further into mobile video Internet advertising revenue and mobile other display Internet advertising revenue. This revenue is digital.
This segment comprises revenue from both consumer-focussed and trade magazines (i.e. magazines aimed at a professional audience), from both circulation and advertising. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.
Circulation revenue for both consumer and trade magazines comprises spending by readers on either single sales from retail outlets or via subscriptions in print, and via downloads of individual copies or subscriptions delivered digitally direct to a connected device such as a PC or tablet.
This segment considers advertising spend for both consumer and trade magazines in both traditional print and through digital online magazines – either direct through a magazine website, or magazines distributed directly to a connected device such as a PC or tablet. Magazines published under contract (customer magazines/contract or custom publishing) are included within the print advertising section. Licensing of merchandise is not included in the segment.
Music, radio and podcasts
This segment comprises consumer spend on music, including both physical and digital recorded music and live music played at concerts, as well as revenue from sponsorship of live music, but does not include revenue from merchandise or concessions at live music events. It also includes revenue from consumer spend on radio licence fees (where applicable) and all advertising spend on radio stations and radio networks. Finally, it includes revenue from podcast advertising, podcasts being defined as a piece of principally spoken-word recorded audio content delivered over the internet, excluding audiobooks, that can be either downloaded or streamed. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and revenue from both consumer and advertising spending.
The recorded music component comprises physical and digital. All consumer spend is measured at retail level which can be substantially higher than the wholesale or trade value revenues sometimes reported. This segment includes both digital and non-digital revenue, and is revenue from consumer spending.
Physical recorded music covers any retail or online purchase of official physical albums (i.e. CDs), single sound recordings or music videos. Digital recorded music considers the sale of any licensed music distributed digitally to connected devices (including PCs, tablets, smartphones and dedicated music players), and is split between streaming and downloads.
Streaming comprises revenue from subscription and advertiser-supported streaming services (such as Spotify). Note that service providers do not break this revenue out into consumer and advertising components.
Downloads includes revenues from any licensed recorded music downloaded via app stores or licensed services (such as iTunes).
Mobile music here refers to the purchase of ringtone and ring-back tones only. Revenues from music services that are delivered wirelessly to connected devices (such as Spotify) are included under digital.
Performance rights revenue is generated for record companies and performers by the use of recorded music by broadcasters and in public venues.
Synchronisation rights revenue represents earnings from the use of music in advertising, film, games and television programmes.
For live music, consumer spend on tickets is included along with sponsorship revenues. This segment is non-digital and represents revenue from consumer and advertising spending.
The total number of music units sold at retail level, both physical and digital, includes both single tracks (as either physical or digital singles) and albums (either digital or physical).
The number of individual music tracks sold digitally includes digital singles, albums and paid-for music videos.
The number of physical music units sold includes albums on CD, single sound recordings and paid-for music videos.
In radio, public radio licence fees are included for applicable markets in EMEA and APAC. Where a mandatory fee covers both TV and radio, we have estimated radio's share of that total (note the TV subscriptions segment includes the whole fee; radio's share is removed when calculating total revenue to avoid double counting).
Revenue from radio advertising on radio stations and radio networks is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts. In the US and Canada only, revenue from advertising spend on terrestrial broadcast radio is considered separately from online advertising revenue.
In the US and Canada only, revenues from subscriptions to satellite radio services (such as SiriusXM) are also considered, as is advertising spend on satellite radio.
Podcasts advertising considers all revenue generated from advertising carried within podcasts, whether directly embedded in the audio file or dynamically inserted. Revenue from advertising not contained in the podcast itself (e.g. banner ads surrounding a Web player) is not included. Advertising revenue is assigned to the country where the revenue accrues (generally the country where it is produced), regardless of where the listening actually occurs.
This segment comprises revenue from both circulation (consumer spend on newspapers) and advertising in newspapers, and considers both physical print editions and digital editions. It includes all daily newspapers, including weekend editions and free dailies. Weekly newspapers are included in markets where data is available. This revenue is both digital and non-digital, and is from both consumer and advertising spending.
Circulation revenue comprises consumer spend on newspapers, including print (newsstand purchases and subscriptions to the print edition) and digital (digital subscriptions and payments for newspapers delivered direct to connected devices such as a PC, tablet or smartphone, including fees to access online content).
Advertising revenue considers advertising spend on both print editions of newspapers and digital newspapers, which includes all advertising on newspaper websites, tablet apps and smartphone apps.
In the US and Canada only, print newspaper advertising revenue is split between classified advertising revenue, national advertising revenue and retail advertising revenue in printed newspapers. Other markets do not make this split. This revenue is non-digital and from advertising.
The out-of-home (OOH) advertising market consists of advertiser spending on out-of-home media.
OOH comprises total advertiser spending on all formats of out-of-home media, and is split between physical and digital. Advertising spend is tracked as net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts.
Traditional physical out-of-home media includes billboards, street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks) transit displays (bus sides, taxi toppers), sports arena displays, and captive ad networks (in such venues as elevators).
Digital OOH includes any out-of-home advertising media that is Internet-connected (e.g. smart billboards).
This segment comprises consumer spending on video accessed via an over-the-top (OTT)/streaming service (such as Netflix).
OTT video revenue comprises revenue from stand-alone services (such as Netflix) whose filmed entertainment content is accessed via a broadband or wireless Internet connection and is viewable on a PC, TV, tablet, smartphone, or other device which bypasses TV subscription providers. These services are split between transactional video on demand (TVOD) and subscription video on demand (SVOD). Note that this category also includes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, that do not require a subscription to a core TV service, but excludes revenue from operator "TV Everywhere" packages (such as Sky's Go or Comcast’s Xfinity) that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services.
TVOD services (such as iTunes) deliver filmed entertainment content via the open Internet and do not require a subscription. SVOD services (such as Netflix) are also delivered over the open Internet, but require a subscription.
Traditional TV and home video
This segment comprises consumer spending on basic and premium TV subscriptions; consumer spending on public licence fees where applicable; physical home video revenue; and on-demand video services via a TV subscription provider. This revenue is digital and non-digital.
Consumer spending on basic and premium subscriptions includes video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) accessed from cable operators, satellite providers, telephone companies and other multichannel distributors. It considers only the primary TV subscription in each household so penetration will not exceed 100%. It captures all instances where a TV service can only be legitimately received by paying a subscription fee to an operator.
Cable TV households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via cable/MMDS technology. Digital cable services deliver digital programming to viewers, whereas analogue cable services provide analogue programming.
Internet protocol TV (IPTV) households receive TV programming primarily via a telecoms operator wholly or partly using managed Internet protocol TV technology.
Satellite TV households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTH/SMATV satellite-TV technology.
Digital terrestrial TV (DTT) households receive TV programming primarily via an operator which has historically delivered services via DTT technology.
Physical home video cover films, TV programming and other premium video content. Revenue comprises sell-through and rental of physical home video.
Physical home video is split between rentals and sell-through and covers consumer spend on movies, TV programming and other premium filmed entertainment content, on DVD or Blu-ray. The purchase of physical home video products – on DVD or Blu-ray – is included here with all spending considered including retail and online. Rental revenue comprises spending on rentals of videos at video stores and other retail outlets along with DVD or Blu-ray discs distributed by mail services. Ultraviolet sales – where the digital version is bundled with a physical disc – are recorded under physical home video revenue.
Electronic through-TV-subscriptions comprises revenue from both video on demand (VOD) and pay per view (PPV) services provided by a TV provider – including cable, satellite and telco providers – as part of a TV subscription package, or as an enhancement to that core package. This category excludes revenue from stand-alone operator OTT services that do not require a subscription, such as MTG's Viaplay or Sky's Now, but includes incremental revenue from "TV Everywhere" packages (such as Sky's Go or Comcast’s Xfinity) that bundle OTT with conventional pay-TV services.
In the US only, total electronic home video revenue is split between sell-through and rentals revenue. Electronic home video – sell-through revenue is split between revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered over the top of the networks by aggregators such as Amazon, and revenue from digital download-to-own videos delivered via multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs) such as Comcast. Electronic home video – rentals revenue is split between SVOD revenue, such as Netflix, and TVOD revenue. TVOD revenue is further split between OTT revenue (from digital rentals delivered over the top of networks by companies such as iTunes), and MVPD revenue (from digital rentals delivered via MVPDs such as Comcast or Verizon).
The segment also includes consumer spending on public licence fees where these are required (in EMEA and APAC). Where the public licence fee also covers provision of radio services, a proportion of the total has also been included in the Radio segment, but 100% of the total fee is shown in the TV section, and figures for total revenue eliminate any double counting. This revenue is non-digital, and from consumer spending.
This segment comprises all TV advertising revenue, including broadcast and online. Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by free-to-air networks (terrestrial) and pay-TV operators (multichannel). Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts and reflects revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll ads around TV content distributed by broadcaster-owned websites.
This segment includes revenues only from TV viewed online, delivered by traditional broadcasters via their own websites, and excludes advertising around video content on Internet-based sites such as YouTube (whose revenues appear under video Internet advertising). Advertising revenue is net of agency commissions, production costs and discounts in all territories. This revenue is a combination of non-digital (TV) and digital (online).
Broadcast television covers all advertising revenues generated by pay-TV operators (multichannel) and free-to-air networks (terrestrial).
Multichannel includes non-core network advertising revenue generated via pay-TV networks (cable, digital terrestrial television (DTT), Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) or satellite) including revenue from free-to-air spin-off digital channels launched by the core terrestrial networks. This revenue is considered non-digital.
Terrestrial covers advertising sold on traditional, core, over-the-air TV channels even if they are viewed via a subscription service or free digital TV. This revenue is considered non-digital.
For the US only, multichannel advertising is split between cable networks and multichannel systems, while terrestrial advertising is split between broadcast networks and televisions stations. Other territories do not make this distinction.
Online TV advertising consists of in-stream adverts only, combining revenues from pre-roll, mid-roll and post-roll. Overlays (where advertisers use a video overlay layer to deliver an ad unit) are not included within this definition. This revenue is considered digital.
Video games and e-sports
This segment comprises consumer spending on video games software and services (not hardware or devices) across both traditional and social/casual gaming, as well as revenue from advertising via video games. It also includelooks revenue from at consumer and advertiser spend on e-sports revenue.
Traditional gaming comprises revenues associated with playing games on PCs and games consoles (both TV-connected and portable). This includes physical (disc-based) game sales at retail (both bricks-and-mortar and online retailers), digital game sales (including Steam, Good Old Games and Origin for PCs, and the PlayStation Store, Xbox Games Store and Nintendo eShop for consoles), and additional downloadable content (DLC) and subscription services. Online/microtransaction revenue also includes spending associated with free-to-play Massively Multiplayer Online games (MMOs), but does not include spending on social and casual browser-based games, which are included in the social/casual gaming component.
Social/casual gaming revenues includes consumer spending on and in app-based games on tablets and smartphones, and browser games aimed at a casual audience (e.g. Ruzzle and Zynga’s Words with Friends). This includes revenues associated with the purchase of social and casual game apps, subscription services for social and casual games, and the purchase of virtual items within social and casual games. This also includes revenues associated with “hardcore” mobile games (e.g. Infinity Blade 2).
Video games advertising revenue includes only static advertising in video games. It does not include dynamic advertising inserted into or displayed alongside the game in an app or browser during play.
E-sports comprises consumer and advertiser spending on e-sports, defined as organised video games competitions, both online and offline, from one-off events to organised leagues.
Streaming advertising is advertising revenue spent on e-sports events being streamed on websites (such as Twitch). This is distinct from advertising revenue associated with general video games streaming from such platforms (such as Minecraft videos), which is not covered.
Sponsorship revenue is the revenue from sponsorship of organised e-sports competitions, such as Snickers’ sponsorship of the ELEAGUE, and of individual teams.
Consumer ticket sales is revenue from consumer spend on tickets to physically attend e-sports events.
Consumer contribution is revenue from consumer spend on compendiums for e-sports events or battle passes for virtually attending e-sports events, such as The International Battle Pass. The spending must count towards an organised e-sports event, and is therefore distinct from regular spending on games such as League Of Legends.
Media rights revenue is revenue from spend by broadcasters and streaming companies for the rights to show e-sports events.
Excluded from the definition are the sale of merchandise at events, and e-sports betting revenue.
Virtual reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) refers to a head-mounted system that immerses a wearer in a stereoscopic, wholly virtual environment or scene where they can look around, and optionally move and interact. This segment comprises consumer spending on VR video, VR games and VR apps.
VR video revenue comprises revenue from subscription top-ups, streaming fees, electronic sell-through (EST) and physical purchases.
VR gaming comprises revenue from free-to-play/microtransactions, subscription top-ups, digital transactions and physical purchases.
VR app revenue comprises consumer spending on applications for VR headsets beyond those (usually free) apps provided by platform holders for VR gaming and VR video.