DevOps is a working style designed to encourage closer collaboration between developers and operations people: Dev+Ops=DevOps. Historically those groups have been known to work at cross-purposes. DevOps collaboration seeks to reduce the friction between the two groups by addressing the root causes of the friction, making it possible to increase the volume and flow of production code and to reduce the alienation of the operations people who must guard the stability of the system.


Antifragility takes its name from a popular business book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder, by Nassim Nicholas Taleb. In the book, Taleb describes an organizational management theory that appeals to some leading DevOps thinkers. Taleb is also the author of an earlier and related book called The Black Swan and a former trader. While black swans are the rare catastrophes that could cripple an industry (such as what the financial services industry encountered with credit default swaps), antifragility is a rethinking of how organizations should operate to survive assuming the eventuality of black swans. Conceptually, antifragile organizations actually thrive in disrupted environments.

Continuous deployment

DevOps encourages extensive automation and workflow redesign so developers can release small bits of code frequently (in a continuous delivery cycle) and yet not disrupt the operational environment in doing so. The workflow includes buffers, compartmentalization, and extensive monitoring and testing—a very extensive and well-designed pipeline, but also a rich feedback loop.

Agile development

Agile development started before the cloud, but now much developer tool innovation and collaboration occur in the public cloud. Native cloud development is emerging as a separate and very powerful socially networked phenomenon. Agile principles are consistent with, but not sufficient for, native cloud development.