Regulations

Keep informed on various regulatory developments not covered by other issues

Corporate Governance Series

BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - July 2015

7/29/15 | Center for Board Governance

This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on how audit committees can deal with internal investigations. There is also news about the SEC proposing clawback policy rules and a concept release on audit committee disclosure, the PCAOB seeking comment on audit quality indicators, the FASB officially delaying the new revenue recognition standard for one year, and a report on how risk culture oversight is the next board frontier. Read more

An objective look at high-frequency trading

5/8/15 | PwC Investor Resource Institute
  • Flashline
    Flashline - Week ending August 27, 2015

    8/27/15 | Assurance services

    This week's PwC update on financial reporting developments includes: The FASB's not-for-profit financial reporting proposal... ProxyPulse – Third edition 2015... and more.

  • Flashline
    Flashline - Week ending August 20, 2015

    8/20/15 | Assurance services

    This week's PwC update on financial reporting developments includes: Accounting blog: Business Email Compromise Scams... PwC comments on FASB's proposed share-based payment simplifications... and more

  • Flashline
    Flashline - Week ending August 13, 2015

    8/13/15 | Assurance services

    This week's PwC update on financial reporting developments includes: SEC adopts rule requiring CEO pay ratio disclosure... Fair value measurements - 2015 global edition... and more

  • In brief
    In brief: SEC adopts rule requiring CEO pay ratio disclosure

    8/7/15 | Assurance services

    The SEC approved a final rule on August 5, 2015 requiring disclosure of the ratio of CEO pay to median employee pay.

  • Webcast
    Current Accounting & Reporting Developments webcast - September 16, 2015

    Assurance services

    Register for our quarterly webcast, designed to keep you informed about emerging accounting, regulatory, and market developments impacting financial reporting.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - July 2015

    7/29/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on how audit committees can deal with internal investigations. There is also news about the SEC proposing clawback policy rules and a concept release on audit committee disclosure, the PCAOB seeking comment on audit quality indicators, the FASB officially delaying the new revenue recognition standard for one year, and a report on how risk culture oversight is the next board frontier.

  • In brief
    In brief: Dodd-Frank clawback rule: recovery of erroneously awarded compensation

    7/8/15 | Assurance services

    PwC explains the key provisions of the Dodd Frank Clawback Rule proposed by the SEC and how it may impact your company.

  • In brief
    In brief: SEC considers changes to audit committee disclosure of auditor oversight

    7/7/15 | Assurance services

    The SEC is seeking public input on possible changes to its audit committee disclosure requirements.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - June 2015

    6/30/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on how two audit committee members view two new publications on audit quality and assessing external auditors. There is also news about the SEC considering a clawback policy rule, Delaware approving a bill that bans fee-shifting bylaws, about two-thirds of proxy access proposals have received majority support, two former SEC chairs back proposal to disclose political spending, and the PCAOB seeks input on auditor’s use of work of specialists.

  • Disclosure reform: What do investors think?

    6/30/15 | PwC Investor Resource Institute

    Are disclosure requirements causing an overflow of information? And are they keeping up with technology? What do investors think about disclosure reform?

  • Tax accounting insights
    SEC proposes rules on pay versus performance disclosures

    6/24/15 | Human resource services

    SEC proposal requires many US registrants to disclose relationship between executive pay and financial performance.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    The quarter close: Directors edition Q2 2015

    6/22/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This quarterly publication is designed to keep directors informed about the latest accounting and financial reporting issues.

  • Regulatory and standard-setting developments
    Regulatory and standard-setting developments - June 2015

    6/15/15 | Assurance services

    Summary of activities of the PCAOB, SEC, and FASB, and related international developments.

  • Quarter close
    The quarter close — Second quarter 2015: Publication and video perspectives

    6/15/15 | Assurance services

    This edition features recent business, FASB and regulatory developments, including mitigating foreign currency volatility, the SEC's pay-for-performance proposal, developments in the new revenue recognition standard, US GAAP accounting simplifications, and more.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - May 2015

    6/2/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on how boards and management can address the strategic development and execution gap. It includes insight from Strategy& CEO Cesare Mainardi, who discusses the capabilities-driven strategy approach that can help companies get out of the “firefighting” mode some have been stuck in as they deal with crises. The article also includes a link to Strategy&’s surveys and PwC’s 2014 Annual Corporate Directors Survey.

  • US Real Estate Insights: Spring 2015

    6/2/15 | Real estate

    This issue features an article that expands on the trend of US investors deploying capital in foreign markets, as well as the effect of changing demographics on the real estate investing landscape. In “Real Estate: Building the future of Africa,” Ilse French discusses how certain demographic, economic, and political trends in Africa may impact opportunities for real estate investors.

  • Webcast
    PwC’s 2015 State of Compliance Survey - Webcast replay

    Risk Assurance

    In this webcast, we discuss the 5 key themes of this year's 2015 State of Compliance survey report, Moving beyond the baseline: Leveraging compliance to gain competitive advantage. Insights focus on the current challenges that chief compliance officers and chief ethics and compliance officers (collectively, CCOs) face and how they can expand their roles to become partners to the business, contributing actively to the organization’s strategy and direction.

  • Asset managers: The SEC’s road ahead

    5/20/15 | Financial services regulatory practice

    Upcoming rules will address reporting, liquidity, and stress testing.

  • An objective look at high-frequency trading

    5/8/15 | PwC Investor Resource Institute

    Today’s trading is complex and frequently involves little human intervention. Five years after the "Flash Crash," do you know how high frequency trading and dark pools work? Our new report separates fact from fiction.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - April 2015

    4/30/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® covers preparing for shareholder activism. There is also an update on 2015 proxy access proposals, and discusses pension funds asking for board diversity disclosure, as well as BlackRock and Vanguard addressing corporate governance matters. Lastly, this edition touches on the one-year deferral FASB proposal for the new revenue standard.

  • The extra mile: Risk, regulatory, and compliance data drive business value

    4/28/15 | Financial Services Institute

    Want to enhance business value while responding to risk, compliance, & regulatory needs? Learn how to go the extra mile.

  • Practical tip
    Updating interim financial statements in registration statements

    4/17/15 | Assurance services

    Explaining the SEC staff accommodation about the need to update interim financial statements in registration statements.

  • Capital Markets 2020 - Will it change for good?

    4/14/15 | Financial services

    The world of 2020 will be more complex for the users of capital markets. Learn what factors are transforming the global capital markets landscape and the 6 imperatives for success in PwC's second instalment of our Banking and Capital Markets 2020 series.

  • Coming into Focus: 2014 Securities Litigation Study

    4/13/15 | Forensic services

    With financial crisis-related litigation largely played out, accounting-driven federal securities class actions are on the rise. This trend may be driven by increased public attention on financial fraud, in addition to the US SEC's and other regulators’ focus on detecting and prosecuting various forms of improper financial reporting.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: FASB aims for simpler GAAP - Why changing the status quo is easier said than done

    4/9/15 | Assurance services

    The FASB's simplification projects may affect financial statements in more than insignificant ways, making change hard.

  • Sanctions: US action on cyber crime

    4/6/15 | Financial services regulatory practice

    The first cyber sanctions program will soon name names.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - March 2015

    3/31/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on the latest on the flurry of proxy access shareholder proposals in the 2015 proxy season and how the SEC is addressing an exclusion rule used by management to keep them off the ballot. There is also news about President Obama’s recent cybersecurity actions, ISS releasing FAQs on its equity plan scorecard, the NACD’s 2015 Public Company Governance Survey, SEC proposing rules for hedging disclosure, and FASB amending its consolidation guidance.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: The standard-setting process - The benefits of stakeholder engagement

    3/24/15 | Assurance services

    PwC describes its support for timely investor and preparer feedback to enhance the effectiveness of standard-setting.

  • Volcker underwriting: It's simple ... no need to overanalyze

    3/20/15 | Financial services regulatory practice

    Leverage current processes to take the underwriting exemption.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    The quarter close: Directors edition Q1 2015

    3/20/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This quarterly publication is designed to keep directors informed about the latest accounting and financial reporting issues.

  • Regulatory and standard-setting developments
    Regulatory and standard-setting developments - March 2015

    3/17/15 | Assurance services

    Summary of activities of the PCAOB, SEC, and FASB, and related international developments.

  • Shareholder questions: Management's considerations for 2015 annual meetings

    3/13/15 | Assurance services

    See what issues may be top-of-mind for investors for 2015 annual shareholder meetings and how management may respond.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - February 2015

    3/3/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on the latest on the flurry of proxy access shareholder proposals in the 2015 proxy season and how the SEC is addressing an exclusion rule used by management to keep them off the ballot. There is also news about President Obama’s recent cybersecurity actions, ISS releasing FAQs on its equity plan scorecard, the NACD’s 2015 Public Company Governance Survey, SEC proposing rules for hedging disclosure, and FASB amending its consolidation guidance.

  • The CRO Agenda: The Role of the Federal Chief Risk Officer

    3/2/15 | Public Sector Research Centre

    The role of a Chief Risk Officer (CRO) has gained renewed interest within the federal government. A CRO can empower the agency to identify events that could negatively or positively impact the agency’s ability to meet its mission and objectives and to effectively manage the negative events, risks, while reaping the full benefits of the positive events, opportunities. In order to do this, the role must be established and implemented properly. PwC can help.

  • The CRO Agenda: Articulating the Value of Enterprise Risk Management

    3/2/15 | Public Sector Research Centre

    With a rise in uncertainty and an increasingly complex government mission, effective risk management has become critical to the success of federal agencies.

  • SEC's swaps reporting and disclosure final rules

    2/16/15 | Financial services regulatory practice

    Ten key points from the SEC’s swaps reporting and disclosure rules.

  • Practical tips on applying existing financial reporting requirements

    2/7/15

    This PwC series offers tips on applying existing financial reporting requirements with one or more practical examples.

  • Video
    SEC SX Rule 3-05

    2/6/15 | Assurance services

    Considering a potential acquisition? SEC SX Rule 3-05 may require disclosures of financial information of the business. Watch PwC's video perspective.

  • Executive Compensation Clawbacks: 2014 Proxy Disclosure Study

    2/3/15 | Human resource services

    PwC is pleased to share with you our second annual Executive Compensation: Clawbacks — Proxy Disclosure Study. This study presents our analysis of the compensation recoupment or “clawback” policies of 100 large public companies as disclosed between 2009 and 2013 in their year-end proxies. We hope this study will be helpful to those of you preparing proxies as well as those responsible for compensation strategy and financial reporting.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - January 2015

    1/29/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes highlights of the 2014-2015 edition of PwC’s Key considerations for board and audit committee members. There is also an article on the what President Obama’s State of the Union speech could mean to companies. There is news about the SEC mulling over the shareholder proposal exclusion rule, the US Chamber of Commerce’s report on proxy advisory firms, Delaware Supreme Court affirming exclusive forum bylaws, the SEC’s new security-based swap rules and a report on building a fraud-resistant organization.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    What matters in the boardroom? Director and investor views on trends shaping governance and the board of the future

    1/7/15 | Center for Board Governance

    This research compares the responses of PwC’s 2014 Annual Corporate Directors Survey and PwC’s 2014 Investor Survey in order to identify areas where viewpoints are shared or different perspectives may exist between directors and investors.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - December 2014

    12/23/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes highlights of the 2014 edition of the comparative report of PwC’s Annual Corporate Directors Survey and Investor Survey. There is also an article on the importance of board oversight of management’s social media policies and risk management plans. There is news about the proposed CEO/median pay ratio rule, the 2014 SEC whistleblower report to Congress, the PCAOB looking to issue a concept release on audit quality indicators, and the findings of an audit committee transparency barometer.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    The quarter close: Directors edition Q4 2014

    12/22/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This quarterly publication is designed to keep directors informed about the latest accounting and financial reporting issues.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: Public company disclosure model - Is a new approach needed?

    12/18/14 | Assurance services

    Enhancements to the SEC disclosure model calls for a balanced approach.

  • Regulatory and standard-setting developments
    Regulatory and standard-setting developments - December 2014

    12/15/14 | Assurance services

    This document provides a summary of activities of the PCAOB, SEC, and FASB, and related international developments that are of interest to audit committees and companies.

  • In depth
    2014 AICPA National Conference on Current SEC and PCAOB Developments

    12/15/14 | Assurance services

    Key themes of the 2014 AICPA Conference were disclosure effectiveness, comparability, and the need for simplification.

  • Practical tip
    SEC filings considerations when a private company applies PCC standards

    12/11/14 | Assurance services

    This Practical tip explains presenting financial information of a private company applying PCC standards in SEC filings.

  • Video
    Regulatory update interview with Troy Paredes

    12/5/14 | Assurance services

    Get an insider view on the direction and discussions of the SEC with this interview of former commissioner Troy Paredes.

  • Video
    Comment letter trends

    12/5/14 | Assurance services

    Preparing your disclosures going into year end? Learn the current comment letter trends and themes coming from the SEC.

  • Video
    SEC Rule 3-09

    12/5/14 | Assurance services

    Don't get caught, by assessing the need for separate financial statements for significant equity method investees early.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - November 2014

    12/3/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an article on the impact of the midterm elections on the boardroom and news about fee-shifting bylaws, proxy advisor 2015 policy updates, and the COSO survey on updating the ERM-integrated framework.

  • Practical tip
    Management’s internal control reporting for newly public companies

    12/1/14 | Assurance services

    This Practical tip provides guidance regarding Management’s internal control reporting requirements for newly public companies.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - October 2014

    11/4/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes highlights from the 2014 Annual Corporate Directors Survey: Trends shaping governance and the board of the future. There is also news about how ISS equity compensation and independent chair proposal recommendations may change, SEC plans to hold universal proxy ballot roundtable in 2015, political contribution disclosure increasing in S&P 500, and the PCAOB proposal for a new form for engagement partner identification disclosure.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - September 2014

    10/1/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes a summary and link to the latest edition of our Audit Committee Excellence Series (Achieving excellence: Overseeing external auditors.) There is also news about efforts by two large institutional investors to boost the number of female board members, what makes for an effective board self-evaluation, an update on Dodd-Frank rulemaking, and the FASB and PCAOB decisions regarding going concern disclosures

  • NAIC Meeting Notes, Summer 2014

    9/30/14 | Insurance

    The National Association of Insurance Commissioners held its Summer National Meeting in Louisville from August 16 to 19. This newsletter contains information on activities that occurred in some of the committees, task forces and working groups that met there.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    The Quarter close: Directors edition Q3 2014

    9/24/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This quarterly publication is designed to keep directors informed about the latest accounting and financial reporting issues.

  • Regulatory and standard-setting developments
    Regulatory and standard-setting developments - September 2014

    9/22/14 | Assurance services

    This document provides a summary of activities of the PCAOB, SEC, and FASB, and related international developments that are of interest to audit committees and companies.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - August 2014

    9/4/14 | Center for Board Governance

    As cybersecurity has risen to the top of many boards’ risk management agendas, there is a more compelling need for clear dialogue between the C-suite and the board.

  • Corporate Governance Series
    BoardroomDirect: Update on current board issues - July 2014

    8/25/14 | Center for Board Governance

    This issue of BoardroomDirect® includes an analysis of the audit committee's oversight of internal audit. There is also news about the SEC staff issuing proxy advisory firm guidance, ISS 2015 proxy voting policy survey, and more.

  • Non-GAAP financial measures: Investor and analyst perspectives

    8/6/14 | PwC Investor Resource Institute

    Companies often use non-GAAP financial measures to provide insights into their business. Investment professionals share their perspectives on the value to investors, their effect on transparency, and perceptions on management.

  • In brief
    In brief: SEC issues final rules to reform money market funds

    7/25/14 | Assurance services

    New SEC rules mandate floating NAV for institutional prime money market funds.

  • US regulatory outlook: The beginning of the end

    7/22/14 | Financial services regulatory practice

    Four years since Dodd-Frank, several key rulemakings remain.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: Non-GAAP financial measures: Enhancing their usefulness

    7/16/14 | Assurance services

    Enhancing the transparency of non-GAAP financial measures can help users better understand past performance, read our Point of view to find out more.

  • Regulatory and standard-setting developments
    Regulatory and standard-setting developments - June 2014

    6/19/14 | Assurance services

    PwC's summary of recent activities of the PCAOB, SEC, and FASB, and related international developments that are of interest to audit committees and companies.

  • 2014 Conflict minerals filing review - Early insights from some of the largest companies

    6/10/14 | Assurance services

    Our benchmarking of some of the largest companies' conflict minerals filings provides insight into industry trends. We looked at 10 filings for each of the following industries: Aerospace & defense, Automotive, Industrial products, Retail, and Technology.

  • Point of view
    Point of view - Sustainability reporting

    6/6/14 | Assurance services

    Sustainability reporting is a growing trend. Find out how leading companies are benefitting from increased transparency.

  • In brief
    In brief: SEC issues guidance on conflict minerals disclosures

    4/30/14 | Assurance services

    The SEC has reduced some of the conflict mineral disclosures, but the filing deadline remains June 2, 2014.

  • Executive Compensation: Clawbacks 2013 proxy disclosure study

    4/17/14 | Human resource services

    This PwC publication presents our analysis of 2009 through 2012 year-end proxy disclosures for 100 large public companies relative to their compensation recoupment or “clawback” policies. When providing employees with bonuses, stock options, or other incentive awards, companies often establish provisions that allow them to recoup all or a portion of the award under certain circumstances. These provisions, referred to as clawbacks, are detailed by most public companies in their annual proxy statement.

  • US Circuit Court of Appeals Issues Decision on Conflict Minerals

    4/17/14

    On April 14, the US Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued a decision in the conflict minerals case that requires at least one aspect of the rule be revisited.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: Financial statement disclosures - Enhancing their clarity and understandability

    4/11/14 | Assurance services

    Preparers and others have a role in making sure footnote disclosures are clear and understandable.

  • 2014 Conflict minerals survey: Where companies stand on their compliance efforts—this year and beyond

    4/9/14 | Assurance services

    With the deadline for conflict minerals reporting and disclosure fast approaching, PwC recently surveyed 700 stakeholders on their preparation, progress, and challenges. We found many will need to rush to comply with the conflict minerals rule mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act.

  • Video
    COSO 2013 - ICFR Transition

    3/18/14 | Assurance services

    Highlights how clients can effectively leverage PwC's four-phased approach to transition to the COSO 2013 Framework and utilize the Phase 2 mapping template.

  • Dataline
    Dataline: Highlights of the 2013 AICPA National Conference on Current SEC and PCAOB Developments

    12/13/13

    SEC, PCAOB and FASB speakers were among the headliners at the 2013 AICPA Conference. Key themes included quality and transparency for financial reporting and audits.

  • Dataline
    Dataline: Highlights of the 2013 AICPA National Conference on Banks and Savings Institutions

    12/12/13 | Assurance services

    At the 2013 AICPA National Conference on Banks and Savings Institutions, regulators and standard setters shared views on top-of-mind issues for financial institutions.

  • Conflict minerals survey: How companies are preparing

    7/11/13 | Assurance services

    PwC surveyed companies to determine their level of understanding of and progress toward conflict minerals rule compliance. The results of the survey across several industries is included in this report.

  • Video
    Preparing to access the capital markets

    6/18/13 | Assurance services

    In this video, PwC discusses preparing to access the capital markets.

  • 10Minutes
    10Minutes on lease accounting

    6/4/13 | Assurance services

    After three years of outreach and deliberation, the IASB and FASB recently issued a revised proposal to overhaul the rules on accounting for leases, a move that could significantly boost US companies' reported debt.

  • 10Minutes
    10Minutes on conflict minerals

    5/9/13 | Assurance services

    10Minutes on conflict minerals provides insight into the strategic benefits and risks companies will want to focus on as they comply with the SEC's conflict minerals rule. The rule is effective for 2013 calendar year operations, so regardless of whether companies view conflict minerals as a supply chain opportunity, risk to their brand or another regulatory to-do, they should act now to prepare.

  • Non-GAAP measures (Insights from the Investment Community)

    4/15/13 | PwC Investor Resource Institute

    Companies in the United States typically follow generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) when preparing financial statements. A non-GAAP measure is defined as a measure that excludes (or includes) amounts that are included (or excluded) in the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP. Read why members of the investment community find non-GAAP measures useful.

  • Dataline
    Dataline: 2012 year-end accounting and reporting considerations - Leading practices and lessons learned on key topics

    12/3/12 | Assurance services

    This year end, entities continue to face many complex financial reporting issues such as providing new fair value disclosures, accounting for debt modifications, and evaluating revenue recognition guidance. Economic challenges around the world continue to have broad financial reporting implications. While not an all-inclusive list, this Dataline is intended to serve as a timely reminder of leading practices and lessons learned on key issues that companies should consider as they navigate the year-end financial reporting process.

  • Dataline
    Dataline: Highlights of the 2012 AICPA National Conference on Banks and Savings Institutions

    10/18/12 | Assurance services

    The 2012 AICPA National Conference on Banks and Savings Institutions was held September 10 through 12, 2012 in Washington, DC. Representatives from the banking regulators, SEC, and standard setters presented at the Conference along with auditors, users, preparers, and industry experts. Presenters expressed views on a wide range of important accounting, auditing, and financial reporting topics. This Dataline provides highlights of topics discussed at the Conference.

  • Video
    The new conflict minerals rule: What it means for you

    9/17/12 | Assurance services

    The new conflict minerals rule: What it means for you

  • Dataline
    Dataline: SEC adopts conflict minerals rule -- Public and nonpublic companies in many industries are affected (revised June 6, 2013)

    9/11/12 | Assurance services

    On August 22, 2012, the SEC approved a final rule requiring certain issuers to publicly disclose their use of conflict minerals [tantalum, tin, tungsten, and gold] and whether those minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC") or adjoining countries (“covered countries”). This Dataline looks at the key provisions of the final rule. Also included is a supplement on frequently asked questions on conflict minerals.

  • Dataline
    Dataline: SEC Staff releases its final report on its IFRS Work Plan

    8/8/12 | Assurance services

    The SEC Staff recently published its final Staff Report regarding the potential impact of incorporation of IFRS into the US financial reporting system. This Dataline looks at the six key areas covered in the Staff Report and offers our observations.

  • Point of view
    PCAOB Proposed Auditor Reporting Model Changes: Evaluating auditor assurance on information outside of the financial statements

    5/9/12 | Assurance services

    PwC examines, and shares our views on, the PCAOB's concept release on the auditor's reporting model including auditor assurance on information outside of the financial statements.

  • Point of view
    Point of view: PCAOB Proposed Auditor Reporting Model Changes: Evaluating expanded use of emphasis paragraphs

    5/8/12 | Assurance services

    PwC examines, and shares our views on, the PCAOB's concept release on the auditor's reporting model including the expanded use of emphasis paragraphs