Measurement of the quality of a city's air based on the degree of pollution from sources such as vehicles and power plants.
Count of air traffic movements at each of the major airports servicing a city including civil international and domestic passenger, cargo and non-revenue flights, but excluding military flights.
Measure of the ease of using public transit to travel between a city's central business district and the international terminal of its busiest airport in terms of international passenger traffic. Cities are separated into categories according to whether a direct rail link exists between the city center and the airport, if so the number of transfers required, and if not whether there is a public express bus route to the airport. Cities with direct rail links are preferred to those with express bus services. Cities with rail links with fewer transfers are ranked higher than those with more. Cities are ranked against other cities in the same category according to the cost of a single one-way, adult weekday trip and the length of the trip, with each factor weighted equally.
Total value of greenfield (new job-creating) capital investment activities in USD in a city that are funded by foreign direct investment. Data cover the period from January 2003 through May 2010.
Number of greenfield (new job-creating) projects in a city that are funded by foreign direct investment. Data cover the period from January 2003 through May 2010.
Weighted index of the cost of a business trip to a city including such measures as taxi cab rates, lunch prices, and quality of entertainment and infrastructure. The business travel index comprises the following five categories: stability, healthcare, culture & environment, infrastructure and cost.
Annual amount of CO2 emissions in metric tons divided by the city population. Supplemental national reports on data and policies on greenhouse gas emissions were used when city-level data was not available.
Number of students enrolled in public primary education programs divided by the number of classes in these programs. Primary education programs usually begin at ages five to seven and last four to six years. Primary education is counted as the equivalent of kindergarten through grade 5 in the US education system wherever possible.
Assessment of the average commute time for workers commuting into or within a city across all modes of transport, measured in minutes.
Annual gross rent divided by square feet of Class A office space. Gross rent includes lease rates, property taxes, maintenance and management costs.
Measure of the comparative cost of over 200 items in each city. Counted items include housing, transport, food, clothing, household goods and entertainment.
Cost of the longest mass transit rail trip within a city's boundaries. The cost of a bus trip is used in the cities where there are no rail systems.
Amount of reported crimes in a city such as petty and property crimes, violent crimes, and street crimes.
Weighted combination of rankings of the quality and variety of restaurants, theatrical and musical performances, and cinemas within each city; of which cities recently have defined the "zeitgeist," or the spirit of the times; and of the number of museums with online presence within each city. The zeitgeist rankings take into account cultural, social, and economic considerations.
Assessment of the quality of a country's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses and governments to use ICT to their benefit.
Total number of issued shares of domestic companies listed at a city's stock exchange(s) multiplied by their respective prices at a given time. This figure reflects the comprehensive value of the market at that time in millions of USD.
Number of nationalities able to enter the country for a tourist or business visit without a visa. Excludes those nationalities for whom only those with biometric, diplomatic, or official passports may enter without a visa.
Ranking based on notification and approval requirements for termination of a redundant worker or a group of redundant workers, obligation to reassign or retrain and priority rules for redundancy and reemployment.
Ranking based on restrictions and regulations employers must follow when taking on new staff.
Assessment of the bureaucratic and legal hurdles an entrepreneur must overcome to incorporate and register a new firm. Accounts for the number of procedures required to register a firm; the amount of time in days required to register a firm; the cost – as a percentage of per capita income – of official fees and fees for legally-mandated legal or professional services; and the minimum amount of capital – as a percentage of per capita income – that an entrepreneur must deposit in a bank or with a notary before registration and up to 3 months following incorporation.
Ranking of countries according to their provision of end-of-life care. The Quality of Death Index scores countries across four categories: Basic End-of-Life Healthcare Environment; Availability of End-of-Life Care; Cost of End-of-Life Care; and Quality of End-of-Life Care. These indicator categories are comprised of 27 variables, including quantitative, qualitative and "status" (whether or not something is the case) data. The indicator data are aggregated, normalized, and weighted to create the total index score.
Measurement of the entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurial aspirations in a country. The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEINDEX) integrates 31 variables, including quantitative and qualitative measures and individual-level data.
Proportion of employees working in businesses located within a city in the financial and business services sectors to the total employed workforce in the city. Where industry data were disaggregated, included the equivalents of "finance and insurance" and "real estate and rental and leasing" in financial services; and the equivalents of "professional and technical services" and "management of companies and enterprises" in business services.
Ranking based on the number of visa waivers available for tourist or business visits and the length of time for which the visa waiver is granted. Ranking is based on the number of those countries that can stay for at least 90 days, excluding those countries whose residents can only enter without a visa if they have a biometric, diplomatic, or official passport.
Number of countries that are represented by a consulate or embassy in each city.
Proportion of a city's land area designated as recreational and green spaces to the total land area. Excludes undeveloped rugged terrain or wilderness which is either not easily accessible or not conducive to use as public open space.
Measurement of a country's health system performance made by comparing healthy life expectancy (HALE) with healthcare expenditures per capita in that country, adjusted for average years of education (years of education is strongly associated with the health of populations in both developed and developing countries). Methodology adapted from the 2001 report "Comparative efficiency of national health systems: cross national econometric analysis".
Ratio of all hospitals within each city accessible to international visitors to every 100,000 members of the total population.
Count of all hotel rooms within each city.
Measure of availability, diversity, cost and quality of housing, household appliances and furniture; as well as household maintenance and repair.
Total number of incoming and outgoing passengers including originating, terminating, transfer and transit passengers in each of the major airports servicing a city. Transfer and transit passengers are counted twice. Transit passengers are defined as air travelers coming from different ports of departure who stay at the airport for brief periods, usually one hour, with the intention of proceeding to their first port of destination (includes sea, air, and other transport hubs.).
Ranking according to how far a country deviates from a +2% inflation rate, with inflation that is closer to +2% being favored over inflation or deflation that is further from this rate. A +2% inflation rate is used as the benchmark because it is widely regarded as a target or healthy inflation rate in large international banks. A country's inflation rate is based on a projection of how much it's Consumer Price Index (CPI), which measures the rise in prices of goods and services, is expected to rise during the course of 2010.
Leading business executives' responses to the question in the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey 2010 that asks, "How would you rate intellectual property protection, including anti-counterfeiting measures, in your country? (1= very weak 7=very strong)." The survey covers a random sample of large and small companies in the agriculture, manufacturing industry, non-manufacturing industry, and service sectors.
Annual international tourist arrivals for 100 cities collected by Euromonitor International. Euromonitor's figures include travelers that pass through a city as well as actual visitors to the city.
Leading business executives' responses to the question in the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey 2010 that asks, "How would you rate the level of access to the Internet in schools in your country? (1 = very limited; 7 = extensive)." The survey covers a random sample of large and small companies in the agriculture, manufacturing industry, non-manufacturing industry, and service sectors.
Measurement of the strength of minority shareholder protection against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain. The Strength of the Investor Protection Index is the average of indices that measure "transparency of transactions," "liability for self-dealing" and "shareholders' ability to sue officers and directors for misconduct."
Number of libraries within each city that are open to the public divided by the total population and then multiplied by 100,000.
Number of officially licensed taxis in each city divided by the total population and then multiplied by 1,000.
Average score in robust international surveys of country populations in response to the question, "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?" The (Un)Happy Planet Index 2.0 predominantly drew its data from the 2006 Gallup World Poll, with the 2000 and 2005 World Values Surveys being used to fill in values for countries excluded from the Gallup survey. Responses are scored on a numeric scale from 0 to 10, where 0 is dissatisfied and 10 is satisfied.
Measurement of a country's ability to generate, adopt and diffuse knowledge. The Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) Knowledge Index (KI) is derived by averaging a country's normalized performance scores on variables in three categories – Education and Human Resources, the Innovation System, and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The variables that comprise education and human resources are adult literacy rate, secondary education enrollment and tertiary education enrollment.
Ratio of kilometers of mass transit track to every 100 square kilometers of the developed and developable portions of a city's land area. A city's developable land area is derived by subtracting green space and governmentally-protected natural areas from total land area.
Top performers' combined mean scores on the math and science components of an Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) assessment of 15 year-olds' academic preparedness. Top performers are defined as those students who achieved in the top two proficiency levels (Level 5 and Level 6) on the math and science portions of the test. Comparable examinations are used wherever possible to place cities not included in the OECD assessment.
Total miles of metro, tram and light rail track within a city divided by the total population and then multiplied by 100,000. Includes monorail and commuter rail that run within a city if they operate as metros in the city.
Risk of natural disasters occurring in or near a city. Counted hazards include hurricanes, droughts, earthquakes, floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions.
Number of Global 500 headquarters located in each city.
Quantitative assessment of the risks to business profitability in each of the countries. Assessment accounts for present conditions and expectations for the coming two years. The operational risk model considers ten separate risk criteria: security, political stability, government effectiveness, legal and regulatory environment, macroeconomic risks, foreign trade and payment issues, labor markets, financial risks, tax policy, standard of local infrastructure. The model uses 66 variables, of which about one third are quantitative.
Total gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) in 2007 as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP).
Number of people who have completed at least a university-level education divided by the total population. A university-level education is set equivalent to a Bachelor's degree or higher from a US undergraduate institution.
Measure of a nation's relationship with foreign countries, internal stability, law enforcement, limitations on personal freedom and media censorship.
Measure of the comparative relationship between prices and earnings calculated by dividing net hourly income by the cost of a basket of 122 goods and services including rent.
Score based on over 30 factors across 5 categories: socio-political stability, healthcare, culture and natural environment, education, and infrastructure. Each city receives a rating of either acceptable, tolerable, uncomfortable, undesirable or intolerable for each variable. For qualitative indicators, ratings are awarded based on the EIU analysts' and in-city contributors' judgments. For quantitative indicators, ratings are calculated based on cities' relative performances on a number of external data points.
Percentage of municipal solid waste diverted from the waste stream to be recycled.
Percentage of total energy consumption in a nation that comes from renewable sources. Renewable energy sources include geothermal, solar thermal, solar voltaics, hydro, wind, and combustible renewable sources and waste (comprised of solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste). Non-renewable sources include coal and peat, crude oil, petroleum products, gas, and nuclear.
Sum of the scaled scores of a city's universities that are included in the rankings of performing research universities in the world. Scaled scores are based on the number of articles published, number of citations to published work, and the quantity of highly-cited papers. The scoring accounts for social sciences papers, but not humanities papers. The rankings favor large universities, universities with medical schools, and universities that focus predominantly on the "hard sciences" rather than social sciences and humanities.
Ranking based on the flexibility in scheduling of nonstandard work hours and annual paid leave for a business.
Measure of the visual impact of completed high-rise buildings on their skylines, accounting for the height and the breadth of a skyline. Cities are given scores based on the number of buildings located within them that are above 90 meters tall, with taller buildings receiving more points than smaller ones.
Count of skyscraper construction projects in each city underway as of September 26th, 2010. A skyscraper is defined as any building 12 stories or greater in height.
Combined score for each city in fDi Magazine's "Best Cities for Software Development" and "Best Cities for Multi-Media Design Centres" indices. Both indices weight a city's performance 70% based on the quality of the location and 30% based on the cost of the location. The software design index is based on an assessment of 120 quality competitiveness indicators. These indicators include availability and track record in ICT, availability of specialized-skills professionals such as scientists and engineers, access to venture capital, R&D capabilities, software exports, quality of ICT infrastructure and specialization in software development. The multi-media design centre rankings are based on an assessment of 120 quality competitiveness indicators, including the size of the location's leisure and entertainment sector, its specialization and track record, Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, quality of life and skills availability.
The quality and variety of sport and leisure activities within each city.
Currency value of the Special Drawing Right, or the SDR per currency unit. The currency value is determined by summing the values of a basket of major currencies (USD, Euro, Japanese yen and pound sterling) in USD based on market exchange rates and the amount that can be bought by a given currency unit.
Measure of traffic congestion and congestion policies for each city scored on the level of congestion as well as the modernity, reliability and efficiency of public transport.
Measure of the average deviation from optimal room temperature (72 degrees Fahrenheit) in a city. January and July heat indices were calculated for each city using an online tool that integrates average temperature and average morning relative humidity during each month. A final thermal comfort score was derived by first taking the difference between a city's heat index for each month and optimal room temperature, and then averaging the absolute values of these differences.
Total amount of taxes and any mandatory contributions required by local, state and national law payable by a business as a percent of its profit. Does not include employer contributions to healthcare coverage.
Ranking based on staffing risk in each city associated with recruitment, employment, restructuring, retirement, and retrenchment. Risk was assessed based on 25 factors grouped into five indicator areas: demographic risks associated with labor supply, the economy and the society; risks related to governmental policies that help or hinder the management of people; education risk factors associated with finding qualified professionals in a given city; talent development risk factors related to the quality and availability of recruiting and training resources; and risks associated with employment practices. A lower score indicates a lower degree of overall staffing risk.
Proportion of a city's population aged 15-64 to the total population of the city.